According to Eysenck, who would have the LEAST active reticular activating system (RAS)?
Lily, who likes to talk
According to family, twin, and adoption studies, a person is at greatest risk for developing schizophrenia if he or she has a(n) ________.
Identical twin diagnosed with the disorder
According to the ____ theory of emotion, physiological arousal precedes experiencing an emotion whereas the ____ theory suggests emotions result from the simultaneous stimulation of the brain's cortex (perception) and the autonomic nervous system.
James-Lange theory; Cannon-Bard theory
After a stressful day of working in a busy emergency room, Pedro decides to go home, lie on the couch, and listen to calming music. Pedro's decision is BEST explained by the _____ theory of motivation.
After dinner, Sophia started to read a cookbook that is full of colorful pictures of desserts. She decided to make a cake. After the cake was ready she felt hungry again, so she ate the whole cake! This phenomenon can best be explained by the ________ theory.
After watching a hypnotist's act, John is convinced that hypnotized people are really in a different, altered state of consciousness. Edward, however, believes that hypnotized people just follow the hypnotist's commands. John believes the _____ theory of hypnosis, while Edward believes the _____ theory.
Although many successful musical artists don't appear to have "book smarts", they certainly have the "street smarts" needed to succeed in the music industry. Which theory of intelligence BEST accounts for this observation?
Annetta figured out fifty-seven ways to use a toothpick and won a year's supply of toothpicks for her efforts. Annetta demonstrated _____ thinking by figuring out all the uses of a toothpick.
As an assignment for psychology class, Lamar must observe and describe his little brother's personality using the social-cognitive approach. Which of the following should Lamar examine for his assignment?
How his brother's behavior and environment interact
As part of a psychology experiment, Rohit had to solve a set of math problems by himself and then another set of problems with three other people. Rohit found that he didn't apply himself as much in the group as when he was working alone. Remembering his psychology material, Rohit said to himself, "Oh, wow! I must be
Exhibiting social loafing
As you realize that the MP3 player you want costs more than you can afford, part of you wants to steal it. Another part of you says that stealing is wrong, and that you should do as your parents taught you and earn the money to buy what you want. According to Freud, your impulse for immediate gratification comes from your _____, while the pressure to be moral comes from your _____.
As your grandmother has been getting older, you have noticed several ways in which her cognitive abilities have begun to decline. As she ages, she is most likely to lose her ability to
Navigate in a city she never visited before
At the grocery store, a large sign proclaims "30% off!" of your second-favorite brand of chips. As you are reaching for the bag, you think to yourself, "but it would only cost an additional 30 cents to get my favorite brand." Your decision is being influenced by ____.
Because the numbers in the bus schedule are very small, Rudy brings the schedule closer to his eyes to see it better. However doing so puts a strain on his eyes as the lenses in his eyes _____ to project the image on to his retina.
Becky, a 35-year-old mother, sleeps whenever her 6-month-old baby does. Even though Becky and her infant get the same number of hours of sleep, Becky will spend _____ sleep compared to her baby.
less time in REM
Belinda has a fear of blood and needles. Her therapist treats her by teaching her to relax, and then asks her to imagine a series of stimuli, such as a needle on a table, the needle being held by a doctor, the needle piercing a patient's skin, the needle filling with blood, and so on, while staying relaxed. This process is known as
A book about language development titled "Born to Talk" is most likely based on the ______ account of language development.
Bot is a new robot that has been programmed to follow Sam. Bot "knows" who Sam is because he has been programmed to follow Sam's red shirt. However, every time Sam walks in a shadow cast by the building, Bot can't find him. Bot lacks _______ constancy.
Brenna doesn't really like her Psychology 100 course, but it is required for her major. Near the end of the semester, her Psychology 100 instructor asks Brenna to visit other classes and recruit students to take Psychology 100. The instructor promises Brenna 3 extra credit points out of 300 total points in the course. Brenna agrees to do so, and after telling several classes about how interesting Psych 100 is, Brenna actually starts to like it more, herself. This change in her attitude probably came about because of
The bulb in Sandy's desk light is of 20-watt intensity. It burns out and her husband temporarily replaces it with a 25-watt bulb. Sandy does not notice the difference in brightness. The increase of 5-watts is not enough to exceed Sandy's _____ threshold.
Calab experiences periods of extreme elation, hyperactivity, and boundless energy as well as periods of overwhelming sadness, loss of interest in activities, and feelings of hopelessness and worthlessness. Which of the following medications would most likely be used to treat Calab's disorder?
A client tells his therapist about a dream of riding on a train with his boss. At the end of the journey, the boss gets off the train at a terminal. The therapist suggests that the "terminal" in the dream indicates an unconscious desire by the client to "terminate" his boss. This desire to terminate the boss, if it exists, would reflect what Freud called the __________ content of the dream.
Debbie and Michael are cloud watching. Debbie points at a cloud and asks Michael what he sees. He replies that he can't really make anything out in it. Debbie tells him "hmm really? I think it looks like a bell and a flower." "Oh yeah, now I see it, it does look like a flower next to a bell" exclaims Michael. Michael now being able to see the flower and bell demonstrates
Dersu's dad demands that Dersu play a game of catch with him. When Dersu keeps dropping the ball, his dad tells him that he is stupid unless he can be a good athlete. According to the humanistic approach to personality, Dersu's Dad is creating _____ for his son.
Conditions of worth
Destry has been diagnosed with schizophrenia. He is extremely withdrawn, shows little or no emotion, and no longer enjoys doing the things he liked to before the onset of his illness. Destry's symptoms would be classified as _____ symptoms of schizophrenia.
The difference between insomnia and sleep apnea is that __________.
Insomnia is characterized by sleeplessness, whereas sleep apnea is characterized by breathing difficulties
Dr. Archana is a psychotherapist who believes she should be open and accepting of her clients and not label them or judge them. Dr. Archana's approach to therapy can be best described as _____ and her willingness to listen to her client without evaluating them is known as _____.
person-centered; unconditional positive regard
Dr. D. Mento tells Marilyn that the source of her problems lies in a blocking of her growth potential. Dr. D. Mento says he can help her become aware of those blockages if she will take responsibility for her own actions. Dr. D. Mento most likely adheres to which approach to treatment?
Dr. Schultz studies children's personalities. She believes there are clear differences in personality dimensions among children and these dimensions can predict children's responses over time and in many different situations. Dr. Schultz's beliefs correspond with the ______ approach to personality.
Dustin usually keeps a distance of about 4-12 feet while having conversations with strangers. This is one example of ________ distance.
Elena is working on a team project for her computer science class. She finds that many people on the team do not complete their assigned tasks. Elena has discovered a social psychology phenomenon known as
Emile is considering offers from two different colleges. Cactus University has one of the highest rated programs in his major (psychology) and charges low tuition, but it is located in the middle of the desert. Beach University is right on the water (his favorite sport is surfing), but the tuition is higher and its psychology program is lower-rated. Emile is facing a(n) _____ motivational conflict.
Ernest's home is extremely cluttered with building materials. He often impulsively starts a home repair project, only to leave it unfinished and then impulsively starts a different project. According to Freudian theory, Ernest may have experienced a disruption during the _______ stage of development.
Eugene, 77 years old, is retired now, but he has worked on daily crossword puzzles since he was a teenager. He no longer finishes the puzzles as quickly as he used to, but can complete more difficult puzzles. Eugene's puzzle performance reflects the fact that his _____ intelligence has remained relatively intact.
Ezekiel asks, "Mom, may I eat a hot fudge sundae with extra whipped cream?" When his mother replies "No", Ezekiel then asks if he may eat one cookie. Ezekiel is using the _____ strategy for gaining compliance.
Fernando and his brother Sancho are walking down the road when they see a knight on horseback approaching them. The knight is brandishing a sword and screaming. Both Fernando and Sancho experience the same physical response, but Fernando feels fear and Sancho, who just read a book about a heroic knight, feels excitement. These responses are best explained by _______ theory of emotion.
the Two Factor
Flora's car breaks down, leaving her stranded on a busy highway in the middle of rush hour. As more and more people pass her, Flora is surprised that no one stops to help her. The behavior of other drivers is an example of the
For spring break, you and a friend fly 2 time zones west from Illinois to California. Your friend complains about his jetlag. You explain to him that his jetlag is caused by a change in his ______ and that next week he will most likely experience ______ jetlag when he travels 2 time zones eastward back to Illinois.
For the past few months, Val has felt completely hopeless and unmotivated. She does not eat much and feels worthless. Then, suddenly she felt extremely optimistic and became full of energy. Val is most likely experiencing _____ disorder.
Hal is a police officer who believes that all elderly people are bad drivers. He issues tickets to a disproportionate number of elderly drivers. Hal's belief is an example of _____, and his behavior is classified as _____.
"Hamburger" is an example of a(n) ____, while your knowledge about how you obtain one is an example of a(n) ____.
Helen's ear infection became so severe that it also affected her vestibular sense organs. This means that Helen most likely
Began having dizzy spells
Ichabod is asleep when there is a sound outside his window. Ichabod becomes instantly alert, even though he was asleep a moment before. What stage of sleep was Ichabod most likely NOT in before he was awakened?
Identical twins have IQ correlations around .7, whereas fraternal twins have IQ correlations of about .3. What do these correlations suggest?
Identical twins have very similar IQs while fraternal twins do not
If you didn't already know sign language and you observed two deaf persons using signs, you would probably
Understand little to nothing about what was being communicated
In addition to general intelligence, Charles Spearman believed that intelligence scores also reflected ________
Specific intellectual abilities, or s factors
In her dream, Lisa has just won the lottery. As she is dreaming, she thinks to herself "This is great! I hope this dream never ends." Lisa's being able to think she doesn't want the dream to end is an example of _____ dreaming.
In nonhuman animals, the most common circumstances under which communication occurs are
Aggression and mating
Jackie Robinson, the first African-American to play in the major leagues, was told all his life that he was inferior. Yet time after time he was able to outperform many of the other players on the field. Which potential problem did Jackie Robinson overcome?
Jacques, the painter, will be able to use all of the following to portray depth in his painting of a Parisian street, EXCEPT
Jim and Bob both have negative attitudes toward review sessions. Jim's instructor explains that review sessions can help to focus study efforts. Jim thinks carefully about this explanation and then changes his attitude using the ______ route to attitude change. Bob's instructor also tells him that review sessions are useful. Bob doesn't think much about the explanation, but he is impressed by his instructor's confidence and thinks that she is very intelligent so he changes his attitude using the ______ route to attitude change.
Jimmy used to be the most aggressive boy in school, and was always in trouble for hurting other students. Ever since he started taking art classes, he seems to have calmed down, although his paintings and drawings often depict violence. According to Freud, Jimmy is most likely employing a defense mechanism known as
Jocelyn, an excellent hypnotic subject, has been instructed under hypnosis to relive her birthday party when she turned six years old. Jocelyn will most likely
act as though she were six years old and describe the events as if she were currently experiencing them
John has made a career of stealing older people's retirement money by taking advantage of their trust and selling them phony retirement investments. John explains that he has done nothing wrong. He says, "If these people were not so greedy, they would not be so eager to invest in my phony schemes." In his mind, his victims got exactly what they deserved. John's behavior and attitude are typical of someone with ________ personality disorder.
Julie has fallen in love with her therapist, and tells him so at their weekly meeting. He tells her she is probably experiencing transference. Julie's therapist is working within the _____ approach.
Justin was an average student in school. He ultimately earned his college degree, barely maintaining a "C" average. He has since been named manager of a local retail store and is responsible for the store's unprecedented success. According to Sternberg, at what type of intelligence does Justin excel?
Karen is a family therapist who has just arrived at her client family's home to have dinner with them and spend the evening. Her visit is not social, but rather will be an opportunity for her to see how the family interacts with one another. Karen is using which family therapy model?
Structural family therapy
Katie is in pain after falling and scraping her knee. Rubbing the area around the scrape temporarily reduces her pain. According to the gate control theory of pain, this happens because the rubbing
Take over the pathway for pain signals to the brain
A key point of agreement between contemporary psychologists and the ideas of Sigmund Freud is that adult personality
Is relatively stable across time
Linda's 3-month-old infant keeps saying "ga-ga" and "doh-doh." Should she be worried?
No; this behavior is called babbling and it is normal for infants
Louise and her friends enter the movie theater and have a difficult time seeing because it is so dark. After several minutes, however, they are able to see a lot better. Their increasing ability to see in the dark is due to
Adaption of the rods
Mary has trouble coordinating her movements and she cannot feed herself without looking into a mirror. In this example, Mary's ______ sense is probably not working well.
Maury dreams that he is a little boy and he sees a horse being beaten by its owner. Maury is very upset when he awakens, and says "Thank goodness that dream was nothing more than my mind trying to make sense of random nerve firings." Maury most likely believes in the _____ theory of dreams.
Melissa is overcome with anxiety whenever she attempts to leave her house. Her fear has gotten so severe that she has her groceries and other needed items delivered directly to her home. Melissa is probably experiencing
Melvin has been playing the banjo for 12 years but has never played in front of an audience. Melvin entered a local banjo playing competition, at which a large audience is expected. He is trying to decide whether to play a difficult but impressive song he learned recently, or an easy song that he has practiced for years. Social psychology research predicts that the presence of an audience will cause Melvin to play the ____ song _____ because of _________.
Familiar; better; social facilitation
Michelle experiences music and sound through multiple senses. While hearing music she can see certain notes as having unique colors. When people talk to her, she associates different colors with different voices, as well. Michelle's experience is known as
Miguel has become close friends with four guys on his hall, all of whom are smokers. Miguel has never had any particular desire to smoke cigarettes, and his friends have never asked nor told him to smoke. Nevertheless, he finds himself smoking when his new friends are around. The social force that pushes Miguel to smoke in these situations is known as
The more frequently that Edward sees Sally on campus, the more positive his attitudes become towards her. The fact that Edward's attitudes are becoming more positive with every encounter can be attributed to the
Mrs. Linder, a high school math teacher, believes that students who are good at math will also be good in English, history, and music. Mrs. Linder's belief best supports which concept of intelligence?
Nalani and Nate met last week. They are already firmly committed to each other and feel great passion in their relationship. Sternberg would describe their love as
Penelope has been drinking coffee for the past 10 years. She says she needs the caffeine to stay awake in her classes and simply get through the day. If she does not drink at least five cups each day, she experiences severe headaches, fatigue, and shakiness. Penelope is most likely _____ dependent on caffeine and is experiencing _____.
Phoebe is an interior decorator who is creative, imaginative, and is good at using unconventional items in unusual and original ways. Phoebe most likely would be high in ______ according to the Big Five personality theory.
Openness to experience
poor performance in a recent marathon race on his poorly fitted shoes. However, he believes that other runners who did poorly just didn't practice enough. Norwood's reasoning illustrates
The fundamental attribution error
The primary purpose of the DSM-IV-TR is to ________.
Help psychological professionals diagnose psychological disorders
Professor Wilheim is trying to get his students to broaden their perspective. What might you suggest he do?
Show them cartoons before his lecture
Randy hates school because he doesn't understand math. His mom helps him at home and she tells Randy to think to himself, "It's OK. I can do this!" When Randy's math scores begin to improve, he starts to enjoy school and participates in class more, thus encouraging his math teacher to call on him and help him work the problems. According to Bandura, Randy's personality has been shaped by
Rohit has been diagnosed as schizophrenic. He has strange facial grimaces and incoherent speech, and he experiences jumbled and unrelated delusions and hallucinations. Rohit would most likely be categorized as a _____ schizophrenic.
Rose is dramatic and constantly needs to be the center of attention. She expects her roommates to listen to her and give her support as she talks incessantly about her problems. She believes that she is a special person and life's rules just don't apply to her. Rose would most likely be diagnosed with _____ personality disorder.
Sabrina is telling her therapist about her fear of flying. Dr. Bono responds, "I am not concerned with how you developed this fear or what it represents, but I can help you, step-by-step, to extinguish it." You now know that Dr. Bono's takes a _____ approach to treatment.
Sam believes that no matter how hard he works, he won't get promoted because he believes that people get ahead based on who they know, and how lucky they are, which can't be controlled. Sam's ________would be characterized as _____.
Locus of control; external
Sam was punished for yelling at his mother. So now when he is angry with her, instead of yelling at her he yells at his little brother. Which defense mechanism best describes Sam's behavior?
Sarah enjoys taking scenic walks each evening. The light energy from objects viewed by Sarah is translated into a neural code that is interpreted by her brain. This process is called
Stacey was recently diagnosed with depression. She was prescribed an antidepressant to treat her symptoms. Her therapist said that this antidepressant works as a(n) ______ on the neurotransmitter ______.
Reuptake blocker; serotonin
Stern's formula states that IQ = Mental Age/Chronological Age X 100. According to this formula, a student with an IQ score of 120 is likely to answer IQ test questions like someone who is age ________, even though the student is only ________.
Sue is participating in a study where she is hooked up to an EEG system so researchers can observe her brain waves as she sleeps. The researchers notice that after a few hours of sleep, Sue's brain waves start decreasing in amplitude and increasing in frequency. Based on this the researchers believe that she is most likely
entering REM sleep
Teresa has pulled an all-nighter to study for her Psychology 100 exam. After the exam, her friends suggest they watch a movie together to celebrate. Even though the movie seems interesting, Teresa says "No" to her friends' offer and goes to sleep instead. According to the ______ theory, Teresa's decision is motivated by the need to maintain _________.
Drive reduction; homeostasis
These therapies consistently outperform most other therapies for anxiety disorders, including phobias, panic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Behavioral and cognitive-behavorial therapies
There is a history of depression in Monica's family. However, Monica has had a relatively easy life and is a well-adjusted and happy graphic designer. Monica's lack of depressive symptoms would be BEST predicted by the _____ approach.
Tracy is a first-semester college student away from home for the first time, at a school where she has no friends. She is worried that no one will like her. According to Maslow's hierarchy, Tracy appears to be primarily concerned for her _____ needs.
Belongingness and love
Troy finds it very hard to lose weight, but he readily gains weight. No matter how hard he exercises, he keeps putting on pounds. He thinks that he has a genetic predisposition to weight gain, most likely making him insensitive to the hunger suppressing effects of
Two weeks after her sudden disappearance on her wedding day, Marcela was found working as a receptionist in Las Vegas, 1,000 miles away from her home. She had no memory of her previous life. Marcela is most likely experiencing
Vince firmly believes that he is the Greek god, Zeus, and that his umbrella can fire thunderbolts. Vince's speech is disorganized and he has difficulty concentrating on his work because of all the prayers he believes he needs to answer. Vince's beliefs about himself are an example of a _____ and he will most likely be diagnosed with _____.
When a student is understands how to solve a problem, but cannot see how to use this knowledge when given the same type of problem in a slightly different format, the student is being hindered by ______.
Salience of surface similarities
Whenever a new guest comes to visit, Holmes points out his favorite abstract painting and asks for the guest's interpretation of it. Holmes believes that by doing so, he is able to discover the guest's unconscious impulses. Holmes is using the painting as a(n) _____ personality test.
When the Illini last won the Big Ten Championship, thousands of fans went wild, mobbing the field, tearing down the goalposts, and keeping the team on the field. These are all actions that individual fans would probably not have done on their own. Their behavior in this situation is an example of
When Yori's pizza was delivered, she quickly began eating. Eventually, though, she had enough and put the rest of the pizza away for later. The biological theory suggests that Yori began eating because of activity in her _____, and she stopped eating because of activity in her _____.
Lateral hypothalamus; ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus
Which of the following individuals would benefit most from taking an anxiolytic?
Steve, who has been diagnosed with obsessive-complusive disorder
Which of the following is an accurate statement regarding the intersection of the mental health and legal industries?
The insanity defense is only raised in about 1% of all criminal trials, and is only successful about one-fourth of the time
Which of the following statements about bilingual individuals is FALSE?
Bilinguals have slightly slower cognitive development in childhood than monolinguals
Which of the following subtests of the WAIS is the least likely to contain culturally biased items?
While boxing, Mike takes a direct hit to his closed eye. He immediately experiences a visual sensation of purple light. Mike's sensation can best be explained by
The doctrine of specific nerve energies
While listening to music, Rodney noticed that some instruments were playing a higher pitched sound than others. Rodney's ability to hear these high frequency sounds is best explained by the _____ theory of hearing.
Xixu experiences intense anxiety when around other people. He becomes overwhelmed with worry that people will criticize him for the way he speaks and behaves. Xixu is most likely experiencing