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Sociology Final

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Conflict theorists would contend that changes in ________ explain the high divorce rates in the United States.
The male-female power relationship
According to symbolic interactionists, the deciding factor that determines if change in society is good or bad requires ________.
A value framework in which to view the change.
According to Robert Merton, ________ are the intended beneficial consequences of people's actions.
manifest functions
According to Max Weber, the Protestant ethic was a central factor in the birth of ________.
capitalism
Functionalist and conflict theorists tend to focus on the ________, or large scale patterns of society, in conducting their analyses.
macro level
Functionalists refer to how parts of a society fit together to form a whole as ________.
structure
Mark views society as a system of interrelated parts, while John views society as composed of groups competing for scarce resources. Mark would be considered a ________ theorist and John would be seen as a ________ theorist.
functionalist, conflict
Of the following, which variable do sociologists emphasize the most as being the determining motivation for our thinking and behavior?
one's society and social location
People all over the world, especially college students are breaking down national boundaries because of advances in communication, trade, and travel. This is referred to as ________.
globalization
Sociologists who analyze how behavior depends on the ways that people define themselves and others are most likely ________.
symbolic interactionists
What is the use of objective, systematic observation to test theories often employed by sociologists?
the scientific method
The titles Karl Marx used to describe the two classes in society were the ________ and ________.
bourgeoisie; proletariat
The term "survival of the fittest" which is a principle part of the concept of social Darwinism, was coined by ________.
Herbert Spencer
The sociologist who developed the concept of the power elite was ________.
C. Wright Mills
The sociologist responsible for suggesting the connection between history and biography to explain the sociological imagination was ________.
C. Wright Mills
The first person to propose that the scientific method could be applied to the study of social life was ________.
Auguste Comte
The early European sociologist Emile Durkheim is most identified with which of the following areas of study?
social integration
The concept used to describe opening a window into unfamiliar worlds that allows us to understanding human behavior by placing it within its broader social context is called ________.
the sociological imagination
Sue believes she is an expert in interpreting gestures, silence, the use of space, and expressions people make in their daily interaction. In view of this, which phrase best describes Sue's self-proclaimed expertise?
Sue claims to be an expert in non-verbal communication
Which group of social theorists would focus most on macro-level analysis when examining patterns of society?
conflict theorists and structural functionalists
A face saving technique where all parties involved in an embarrassing situation ignore it and continue their conversation or interaction as though the embarrassing situation never happened is referred to as ________.
studied non-observance
A focus on the broad features of society to analyze such things as social class and how groups relate to one another is ________.
macro analysis
A position in society that someone holds that cuts across other statuses they hold, such as being a high ranking Army officer, college president, or handicapped would be considered their ________.
master status
According to Durkheim, when a society increases in size, its division of labor becomes more specialized. People begin to depend on one another and become interdependent. This form of social cohesion he termed ________.
organic solidarity
According to Piaget, when children are capable of abstract thinking they have reached the stage of development called the ________.
formal operational stage
The research in the early 1960s using rhesus monkeys to demonstrate the importance of intimate physical contact in the rearing of animals was conducted by ________.
Harry and Margaret Harlow
The social institution that is most recognized for allocating power, determining authority, and preventing chaos is ________.
politics
The sociologist who studied feral children, including the abused child Isabelle who was discovered in 1938 living in an attic with her deaf-mute mother, was ________.
Kingsley Davis
The spread of cultural characteristics from one group to another is called ________.
cultural diffusion
The term cultural lag, which means that not all aspects of a culture change at the same rate, was coined by sociologist ________.
William Ogburn
The two anthropologists who studied the Hopi Indians and concluded that language has embedded within it ways of looking at the world were ________.
Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf
The typical patterns of a group, such as its usual relationships between men and women or students and teachers, is referred to as ________.
social structure
To show ourselves as adept role players and to gain positive recognition from others, we often have additional people work with us to ensure that our role communicates to others the ideas we want them to form about us. This is referred to as ________.
teamwork
Using police records, crime reports, and economic reports, Max will test his hypothesis that unemployed men are more likely to commit spousal abuse than men who are employed. He will most likely use a form of ________ analysis to test his hypothesis
quantitative
Walker is conducting research on scholarship recipients at Faber College. In his sample of 250 students, he is ensuring he has a proportionate number of students based on class standing, race, sex, and major course of study. Walker's sample is an example of a[n] ________.
stratified random sample
What are the three primary variables in determining one's social class?
income, education, occupational prestige
What are the three qualities on which research ethics are based?
openness, honesty, truth
What concept do sociologists have in mind when they say "society makes us human"?
socialization
What did the Harlow experiment conclude as being the key to infant-mother bonding?
intimate social contact
What is another term used to describe the research method called participant observation?
fieldwork
What is the defining characteristic of a representative sample?
Each person in the population of interest has an equal chance of being chosen
What is the major problem using participant observation as a research tool?
It has a problem with generalizability
What term applies to the stages people pass through from birth to death, beginning with "childhood" and concluding with "the older years"?
the life course
What term does Durkheim use to describe the degree to which members of a society are united by shared values and other social bonds?
social integration
What term is used to describe children who are assumed to have been raised by animals in the wilderness and isolated from other children, such as the "wild boy of Aveyron"?
feral
What term would Mead use to refer to the norms, values, attitudes and expectations of the public?
generalized others
What two sociological perspectives are most linked to macrosociology?
functionalism and the conflict perspective
What was the result of research on mother-child bonding based on hours per week children spent in daycare?
As the number of hours in day care increased, the weaker the bond between mother and child.
When Harry returned from a business meeting in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, his wife asked him what he thought of the Vietnamese people. Harry replied, "they're primitive people who eat roast dog, drive wildly around town on motor scooters, and talk very fast." Harry's reply best qualifies as an example of ________.
ethnocentrism
When Peter Rossi and the National Opinion Research Center studied the homeless, it was necessary for them to develop a practical and accurate description to determine exactly what constituted being homeless. This description would be classified as a[n] ________.
operational definition
When a group has a distinctive way of looking at life, but at the same time their values and norms reflect the dominant culture of their society, the group would be considered a[n] ________.
subculture
When a respondent tells a researcher who is asking questions of a serious nature the "socially acceptable" answers, it would be an example of ________.
interviewer bias
When evaluating how members of Western and Eastern cultures view situations, Westerners typically see ________, while Eastern cultures (Asians) see ________.
categories; relationships
When we communicate information about ourselves, we use the social setting, our appearance, and manners to make impressions on others. Erving Goffman referred to these methods as ________.
sign vehicles
Which of the following is not one of the five functional requisites that every society must fulfill to survive?
maintaining traditional gender relations
Which of the following examination formats is most likely to incorporate closed-ended questions?
a multiple choice exam
Which of the following groups is least qualified as a social institution?
neighborhood street gangs
Which of the following groups would NOT be an example of a counterculture?
Chicago Cub fans
Which of the following is an example of social interaction?
a driver signaling a right turn with his directional signals
Which of the following perspectives is most appropriate for a research sociologist to use?
both macro and microsociology depending upon the situation
Which of the following represents a correct sequence of steps in the research process?
Select a topic, review the literature, collect the data, share the results
Which of the following represents an achieved status?
Which of the following represents an achieved status?
Which of the following statements best describes how stereotypes effect our interaction with others when we first meet?
We make assumptions that can become a self-fulfilling prophecy
Which of the following statements is the best example of a hypothesis?
Unemployed men are more likely to commit spousal abuse than employed men.
Which of the following terms does not belong with the other three?
social learning
Which of the following traits is least likely to be linked to "nature" (heredity) and more likely linked to "nurture" (the social environment)?
vocational choice
Which sociological perspective is most linked to microsociology?
symbolic interactionism
Which statement is least accurate in describing gestures?
Social scientists have identified and agree that a number of gestures are universal.
Why did Mario Brajuha refuse to turn over his research notes to the authorities, even when subpoenaed?
He wanted to protect his respondents
Why did a number of sociologists think Laud Humphreys' research on tearooms was unethical?
He did not identify himself as a researcher
Sociologically, what term best applies to a group of people who share no common destination taking an elevator from the first floor of a large high rise ?
an aggregate
Who is the sociologist given credit for coining the concept of the McDonaldization of Society?
George Ritzer
The experience of being cut off from the product of one's labor that results in a feeling of powerlessness is called ________.
alienation
In group decision making, a form of tunnel vision that develops in which suggested alternatives are perceived as signs of disloyalty is called ________.
groupthink
The "dawn of civilization" is most associated with which social revolution?
agricultural
According to strain theory, the underlying cause of deviance is that people experience a sense of normlessness. This sense of normlessness is referred to as ________.
anomie
John desires the best things in life...a fast car, designer clothes, and membership in exclusive clubs. But rather than work his way through the system, he has discovered he can have all these things by selling crack cocaine in the inner city. How would Merton classify John?
an innovator
A group characterized by intimate, long-term, face-to-face association and cooperation is referred to as a ________.
primary group
The theory developed by Robert Merton is based on the idea that most people want to attain cultural goals, but not everyone has the legitimate means of achieving them is ________ theory.
strain
What was the distinguishing feature of Calvinism that contributed to the rise of capitalism?
The belief that people were destined before birth for either heaven or hell.
When the former Soviet Union collapsed, NATO forces were no longer needed to protect Europe from a communist invasion. Rather than disband NATO, it was turned into a "rapid response force" to fight terrorism. Sociologists would term this shift in focus an example of ________.
goal displacement
A phenomenon of group dynamics that results in a decrease in one's willingness to help others as the size of the group increases is referred to as ________.
diffusion of responsibility
What is the sociological significance of the Hmong practice of zij poj niam (marriage by capture)?
It demonstrates how cultural values determine deviance.
What is the widespread acceptance of using rules, efficiency, and practical results to determine human affairs and the building of social organizations around this concept?
the rationalization of society
Who conducted the classic experiment addressing the power of peer pressure that included six "stooges" and one actual test subject viewing cards with lines of varying length?
Solomon Asch
A society that is based on the harnessing of machines powered by fuels is called a[n] ________ society.
industrial
Of the following groups, the one that plays the most significant role in the development of self is the ________.
primary group
The underlying motivation for a new class of crime referred to as hate crime is ________.
bias
Ritualistic procedures intended to humiliate norm violators and mark them as being moral outcasts of the group to which they once belonged are called ________.
degradation ceremonies
Who was the analyst who pinpointed five ways in which Japanese corporations differ from those in the United States?
William Ouchi
Because of our sense of belonging and loyalty to in-groups, we often tend to judge our own group's traits as virtues, but see the same traits in other groups as vices. This judgment of superiority is an example of ________.
a double standard
Milgram's experiment involving the "small world phenomenon" utilized two groups. He referred to these two groups as the ________ and ________.
starters; targets
How would conflict theorists classify migrant workers, seasonal employees, and members of the workforce who are subject to layoffs?
marginal working class
The term degradation ceremony was coined by sociologist ________.
Harold Garfinkel
The use of video cameras to peer over employees' shoulders, the monitoring of air quality within the workplace, and the prohibiting of smoking by employees anywhere on company property is what sociologist Gary Marx calls ________.
a maximum security workplace
In any group of three members two of the three may have a tendency to alienate the third member and dominate the decision making for the group the trio represents. When this occurs, what term best applies to the two unified members?
a coalition
Infidelity, recreational drug use, and cheating on one's income tax return are behaviors that are becoming more and more common and to a degree, socially acceptable. What term do sociologists apply to this phenomenon?
the mainstreaming of deviance
The specific Protestant theology that influenced Max Weber's theories of social change and the development of The Spirit of Capitalism was ________.
Calvinism
Of the following, the crime with the highest rearrest rate within three years of release from prison is ________.
car theft
Which of the following is the best example of "worker empowerment"?
A small work team in the design department has decided to fire one of the members of the their department.
A small work team in the design department has decided to fire one of the members of the their department.
apartheid
A system of beliefs that justifies a particular social arrangement such as slavery is called ________.
an ideology
According to Adorno, a[n] ________ is a person who is prejudiced and ranks high on scales of conformity, intolerance, insecurity, respect for authority, and submissiveness to superiors.
authoritarian personality
According to Gaetano Mosca, every society is stratified by ________ to ensure that society's work gets done.
power
According to Melvin Tumin, which of the following high school seniors will most likely attend college?
A B-/C+ student from the upper class.
Agatha has worked for ten years in the public relations department of a large firm. She has been promoted to several higher paying managerial positions, but never to an executive position, even though she has directed several successful projects for the firm. Her lack of promotion illustrates ________.
the "glass ceiling"
Approximately one and a half million Americans over the age of 65 are in nursing homes. This accounts for approximately ________ percent of the nation's elderly.
4
Approximately what percentage of each tax dollar is dedicated to Social Security and Medicare benefits?
25 percent or 31
As a full professor of sociology, Jackie ranks high in prestige, but relatively low in income. What can one expect of her political views?
She will be more politically radical.
She will be more politically radical.
one race is superior to another; pure races exist
As the "baby boom" generation reaches retirement age, what can be expected of its effect on the economy?
Many jobs will open at roughly the same time.
Ashley Montagu, a physical anthropologist, classified humans into ________ different racial groups.
40
At the steel plant all minorities hired are assigned to work the battery pits, one of the dirtiest jobs in the mill. Even so, all battery pit workers wear this assignment as a badge of honor and have developed a close social bond that transcends the time they spend at the mill. How would Karl Marx describe their solidarity?
The workers share class consciousness
Bartholemew is a member of the second estate in Europe during the middle ages. In view of this, what is Bartholemew's most likely social location?
He is a monk in the St. Thomas Aquinas parish
Based on the Marxist orientation of conflict sociologists, how many distinct social classes exist?
two
Based on the accident that led to the sex change of a seven-month identical twin and the Vietnam veterans' study, which statement is most accurate regarding the effects of nature and nurture on behavior?
Human nature is the result of nature and nurture working together.
Human nature is the result of nature and nurture working together.
college president, supreme court judge, astronaut
Based on the global stratification model adopted by Henslin, nations of the former Soviet Union and its former satellites in Eastern Europe are classified as ________.
Industrializing Nations
Based on the most recent research, why are race and ethnicity a factor in medical decisions that favor treatment for white patients?
Researchers do not know for sure why race and ethnicity are factors in medical decisions
Based on the statistical abstracts, a person possessing which of the following two qualities is most likely to be poor?
an African American female
Based on the textbook, what are two ways a group becomes a minority?
the expansion of political boundaries and migration
Based on the work of Cumming and Henry, when does disengagement begin?
It is a gradual process that occurs over several decades
Based the same levels of academic achievement, where does the greatest pay gap exist between men and women over their lifetime?
among college graduates
Because the first of the baby boom generation has now turned 50, we are likely to see a shift to more positive images of the elderly. What is the major reason for this?
Their vast numbers translate into economic clout and political power
Both the FBI and National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) collect data on the incidence of rape. Which statement best summarizes the relationship between the results obtained by the FBI compared to those obtained by the NCVS?
The NCVS data suggests the incidence of rape is about three times greater than that reported by the FBI.
Changes in society that cause large numbers of people to move up or down the class ladder which causes one class to increase while others decrease is called ________ mobility
structural
Citizens in which of the following nations pay the lowest social security taxes?
the United States
Citizens of which country have the longest life expectancy?
Japan
England was one of the first nations in which industrial capitalism developed. According to world system theory, England would be a ________ nation.
core
Eric Wright revised Marx's concept of social classes by regarding some people as simultaneously occupying more than one class. He termed their positions in the class structure ________.
contradictory class locations
Felix tends goats in Peru, while his wife, Maria, takes care of the family crops. John is a nurse in France and his wife, Sonia, is a midwife. Based on cross-cultural studies, whose work would be given more prestige in their respective societies?
Felix and John's
Following the bombing of Pearl Harbor, any Asian was viewed as an enemy of America. This phenomenon that occurs when one ethnic group that resembles another is also discriminated against because of mere association is called ________.
spillover bigotry
For the last five years Sarah has been trying to recover her ethnic heritage by tracing her family line. This attempt to trace her family line is an example of ________.
ethnic work
Francis recently found out he had a terminal disease and could expect to live for only a short time. He has made a will, paid all his bills, and given instructions to his children. According to Kubler-Ross, Francis is in the stage of ________.
acceptance
George Murdock discovered only a few jobs were consistently male dominated in his study of 324 societies around the world. Which of the following is not one of the male dominated jobs?
taking care of cattle
How do television advertisements typically portray the elderly?
They are seen as being feeble and foolish
How do theorists view the relationship between industrialization and the social value of the elderly in the United States?
The social value of the elderly decreased with industrialization
How does the Gramm-Rudman Law, which seeks to limit the amount of federal debt, deal with the vast amounts of money the government has borrowed from the social security fund?
It acts as though the debt owed does not exist
How does the U.S. Census instruct Americans to classify themselves as it relates to race?
Respondents can choose one or more races that they consider themselves to be.
How have standardized test scores in science and math changed among males and females?
Today there is hardly any difference in test scores based on sex
How much is the average per capita annual income in the United States that includes every American?
$35,000/year
How much is the typical annual family income in the United States?
$54,000
If a person were living during Karl Marx's lifetime and worked at the Smittertown ironworks, Marx would consider that person a member of the ________.
proletariat
In 1996 the U.S. welfare system was restructured. Supporters of this reform maintain that the new system rescues people from poverty and reduces welfare costs. What is the primary evidence they point out to support this?
The number of people on welfare has significantly decreased
In American history who were the "white ethnics"?
Immigrants from Europe whose language and other customs differed from the original White Anglo-Saxon Protestants.
In society, what is the group called with the greatest power, privileges, and social status?
the dominant group
Of the following methods, which would be the best way to preserve a stratification system?
Controlling ideas, information, technology and social networks through ideology.
Pedro, a legal immigrant from Mexico, and George, a white male whose family has been in America for several generations, have each applied for a car loan at the local bank. Pedro's loan was turned down while George's loan was given to him. In comparing their credit history, both men had good credit, and their debts and income were comparable. This is an example of ________ against Pedro.
institutional discrimination
Politically, the class of people who are more likely to feel that the government should intervene in the economy to make citizens financially secure are the ________.
working class
Slavery and apartheid are both examples of how a country's dominant group exploits minority groups for its economic advantage. What do sociologists call this policy?
internal colonialism
A central city that is surrounded by smaller cities and suburbs is referred to as a ________.
metropolis
A city of 10,000 to 50,000 residents that is not a suburb of another larger city that is often located "next to nowhere" is called a[n] ________.
micropolis
A crucial factor that enables social movements to make it past the initial unrest and agitation stage is ________.
resource mobilization
A form of the enterprise zone that combines tax breaks and low interest loans in redeveloping areas is called ________.
the federal empowerment zone
A large group of people who organize to resist or promote social change, such as the organized effort of African Americans to gain civil rights in the 1960s is classified as a ________.
social movement
A situation where there are more bystanders but a tendency for fewer of the bystanders to help in an emergency is referred to as ________.
diffusion of responsibility
A social movement qualifying as a transformative social movement that is based on the prophecy of coming calamity is called a ________ social movement.
millenarian
A social movement that emphasizes world change rather than changing a condition in a specific society, such as the global women's movement, is called a transnational social movement or a ________.
new social movement
According to Karl Marx, what would be the end result of workers being pushed by capitalists to make more and more products without appropriate changes in compensation and treatment?
the violent take over of the means of production and establishing a worker's state
According to Marx, human history shows that struggle develops between the thesis and its antithesis, leading to a synthesis. Marx called this historical change a ________.
dialectical process
According to Max Weber the idea that Protestants should work hard and be thrifty was an unexpected consequence of the ________.
Protestant Reformation
According to sociologist Herbert Gans, people experience the city differently. How did Gans suggest some people find a sense of community in the city?
They personalize their shopping and patronize the same establishments.
According to sociologist William Julius Wilson, what organizational change in society transformed the inner cities into ghettos.
suburbanization
According to sociologists Alfred and Elizabeth Lee, there are seven basic techniques that are used by propagandists. One technique is to have candidates pose for photographers in jeans and a work shirt or having lunch at a fast-food restaurant. This is an example of the ________ strategy.
plain folks
According to the symbolic interactionist perspective, why do women in poor nations bear a large number of children?
Large families are rewarded socially and economically.
According to the text, there is no energy shortage now or will there ever be as fossil fuels are not the only source of energy available. What argument do conflict theorists present to explain why these abundant alternative sources are not used?
The sources present a threat to the multinationals' oil monopoly.
Actions, such as lynchings, performed by a group of people who bypass the usual norms governing their behavior and do something unusual is referred to as ________.
collective behavior
Alan is a part of a group protesting the reductions in student financial aid at Boston University. He is presently a junior and is protesting because without financial aid he cannot complete his degree. Based on Turner and Killian's identification of the type of people who participate in collective behavior, Alan would be considered a[n] ________.
ego-involved participant
Although all the faculty members of Acadia University have new state of the art computers several professors refuse to use them and even replaced them with personal typewriters. This is an example of ________.
cultural lag
An institutionalized social movement is underway on campus to reduce violence against women. In view of this, which of the following actions is least likely to occur?
Members of the movement will protest outside the public safety building, showering it with eggs and rotten fruit.
An urban legend is a story with an ironic twist that sounds realistic, but is false. According to folklorist Jan Brunvand, urban legends teach us a three moral lessons about life. Which of the following is not one of the three moral lessons identified by Brunvand?
Each story should be taken seriously.
At approximately which period in history did cities begin to develop on a large scale in several parts of the world?
3500 years before the birth of Christ
Based on Gans' typologies of city dwellers, what classification do the elderly, mentally ill, and drug addicts fall into?
the trapped
Based on the classic Marxist view, what is the new arrangement of power that develops when the previous position is altered due to its inherent contradictions?
the synthesis
Because of new technologies, more parents can work at home which can strengthen families and lead to a decrease in the divorce rate. This example demonstrates how new technology can transform ________.
social relationships