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Chapter 47 Circulatory and Respiratory System
Terms in this set (100)
one of the tiny air sacs found in the lungs
a protein produced by B cells that binds to antigens
a substance that stimulates an immune response
the largest artery in the human body; carries blood from left ventricle to systemic circulation
semilunar valve on the left side of the heart
a branch of an artery that goes to capillaries
a vessel that carries blood away from the heart to the body's organs
a disease with fatty materials built up on the artery wall
a one-way valve separating each atrium from the ventricle beneath it
anterior chamber of the heart (lower)
force that blood exerts on the walls of blood vessels
a characterisitic of the blood of an individual, A, B, AB or O depending on the type of antigen present on the surface of the red blood cell
a small tube that branches from the bronchi within the lungs
one of two branches of the trachea that enters the lungs
the smallest blood vessel in the blood vessel network
the blood, heart and blood vessels
subsystem - blood to the heart
phase of heartbeat, ventricles relax, blood flows in from atriu
pressure in the blood when ventricles relaxed
flap of tissue that covers the trachea
red blood cell
the process in which air is forced out of the lungs
the exchange of gases between the atmosphere and blood
long, sticky threads that function in blood clotting
oxygen carry pigment in red blood cells
hepatic portal circulation
system of blood movement through the digestive tract and liver
high blood pressure
inferior vena cava
large vein carrying blood from the lower part of the body
the process of taking air into the lungs
the exchange of gases (diffusion) between the blood and the cells of the body
voice box that houses vocal cords
white blood cell
fluid of the lymphatic system
a series of one way vessels that carry intercellular fluid from tissues to the bloodstream
a type of white blood cell occuring in two primary forms - T cells and B cells
bicuspid valve; the atrioventricular valve on the left side of the heart
the sinoatrial node that regulates the contraction of the heart
tough saclike membrane that surrounds the heart
a cell that engages in phagocytosis
the liquid component of blood
a partial cell needed to form blood clots
the artery that carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs
the movement of blood between the heart and the lungs
the semilunar valve on the right side of the heart
the vein that carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart
a subsystem of the sytemic circulation that involves movement of blood through the kidneys
a type of antigen found in the blood that may cause complications during some pregnancies
the valve that separates the ventricles from the large vessels on each side of the heart
a thick wall that divides an organ, like the heart
the nerve tissue in the right atrium that regulates the contraction rate of the heart
superior vena cava
the large vein carrying blood from the upper part of the body
the movement of blood between the heart and all parts of the body except the lungs
the phase of the heartbeat in which the ventricles contract and force blood into the arteries
pressure of the blood when the ventricles contract
a network of air tubes; the tube that connects the pharynx to the lungs
the atrioventriular valve on the right side of the heart
a vessel carrying blood to the heart
a lower, and most muscular chamber of the heart
a small vessel in the network of veins
Describe the structure of the heart
The heart is divided in four parts, right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, left ventricle
Outline the path that blood follows through the heart and body, starting at the superiove vena cava
Superior Vena Cava, Right Atrium, Right Ventricle, Pulmonary Arteries, Pulmonary Veins, Left Atrium, Left Ventricle, Aorta Out
SVC, RA, RV, PA, PV, LA, LV, AO
Describe how the heartbeat is regulated
Sinoatrial Node starts electric pulse-pacemaker
Pulse goes to Atroventricular Node
From AN to muscles in ventricles.
Ventricles contract right after atria, one full heartbeat.
How are the structures of arteries, veins, and caplillaries related to their function
Arteries large muscular vessels - away heart- made up of endothelium, smooth muscle, and connective tissue. Strong and elastic, allowing them to stretch as blood enters from heart.
Arteries branch into network of tiny vessels called capillaries, red blood cells have to go single file, all exchange of nutrients and waste occurs. Veins are large blood vessels carrying blood to heart. Vein also has endothelium, smooth muscle and connective tissue.
Compare oxygenation levels in pulmonary circulation and systemic circulation
PC- deoxygenated blood goes heart to lungs & oxygenated blood goes from lungs to heart.
SC - deoxy blood goes frm body to heart
oxy blood goes heart to body
Four components of blood
liquid medium, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets
Structure of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets relates to the function of cells
Plasma thick fluid 90% percent H2O & has metabolites, nutrients, wastes, salts, and proteins. Cells get nourishment from dissolved substances (vitamins, minerals, amino acids, clubcose) carried in plasma.
RBC send oxygen to cells in all of the body. Formed in red marrow of bones.
WBC help defend against disease. Larger than RBC and lots fewer.
What factors determine compatibility of blood types for transfusion
blood type and rh factor
Stages and structures of clotting process
Blood vessel damage, platelets release clotting protein starting clotting reaction. Fibrin net forms trapping blood cells and platelets, and the blood clots.
Which blood types in terms of the A B O and RH antigens can be donated to somebody with type AB- Blood
Any blood type but MUST be rh-
Hemophelia - one pro and one con
Won't have to worry about blood clotting and blocking passageway of blood vessels.
But, it takes an extremely long time healing once body is damaged
Why do you need to know pregnant mom blood type and baby's father blood type
if a mother is rh- and the father is rh+, the child may inherit the dominant rh+ allele from the father. during delivery, a small amount of the fetus's rh+ blood may reach the mother's bloodstream. if this happens, the mother will develop antibodies to the rh factor. if a second rh+ child is conceived later, the mother's antibodies can cross the placenta and attack the blood of the fetus
Difference between internal respiration and external respiration
ER is exchange of gases between air & blood
IR is the exchange of gases between blood and cells of the body
Path of oxygen from air to blood
Air- Nasal Cavity, Pharynx, Epiglottis, Larynx, Trachea to the Lungs, Bronchus, Bronchiole, Alveoli. Capillaries surround each alveolus, and the exchange of gases in the lungs occur in the alveoli. Capillaries transport blood to pulmonary vein, where oxygenated blood transports to the heart.
Gas exchange in the lungs
Air in lungs, oxygen crosses alveolar membranes & capillary walls & dissolves in blood.
CO2 moves in opposite, crosses capillary walls & alveolar membranes & enters alveoli. Air moving in the alveoli is oxygen rich & has little CO2. In contrast, blood in capillaries around alveoli oxygen low & high in CO2. Substances diffuse from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. consequently, oxygen diffuses from the alveoli into the blood, and carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood into the alveoli.
What happens when a person inhales
The chest expands as muscles contract to move the ribs up and outward. at the same time, the diaphragm flattens and pushes down on the abdomen. muscles in the abdominal wall relax.
Difference between oxygen transport & CO2 transport in the blood
when oxygen diffuses into the blood, it moves into the red blood cells and binds to hemoglobin. in carbon dioxide, however, most of the carbon dioxide is transported as a bicarbonate ion.
What regulates rate of breathing
Controlled by brain and brain stem, by monitoring the concentration of CO2 in blood. When activity increases, high levels of CO2 stimulate nerve cells in the brain and the brain stem stimulates the diaphragm to increase the breathing rate and depth. If CO2 is low, sensors in the brain send message to respiratory muscles to slow down
Systolic vs. Diastolic
SP ventricles contract
DP is the steady flow of blood through the artery in the arm.
What doesn't belong and why
Erythrocyte, hemoglobin, luekocyte, platelet
hemoglobin does not belong, the other 4 are the main components of blood
Atrioventricular valbe and semilunar valve
atrioventricular valve is the vale that is between the atrium and the ventricle. semilunar valve separates the ventricles
artery and Vein
artery transports blood from the heart. vein transports blood to the heart
expiration and inspiration
expiration is breathing out. inspiration is breathing in.
phaegin means to eat, cyte means cell, why is this appropriate for phagocyte
phagocytes in the large molecules that are wastes or harmful in the body. therefore, the roots "to eat" and "cell" are very appropriate for this term.
Parts and function of heart
superior vena cava sends deoxygenated blood from upper body to right atrium.
inferior vena cava sends deoxygenated blood from lower body to right atrium.
right atrium sends blood to the right ventricle. right ventricle sends blood to pulmonary artery. pulmonary arteries send blood to the lungs. pulmonary veins return oxygenated blood to the left atrium from the lungs.
left atrium sends blood to the left ventricle.
left ventricle sends blood to the aorta.
aorta sends oxygenated blood to the coronary arteries, the brain, and the rest of the body.
Bloods route through heart lungs and body
SVC , IVC then right atrium and right ventricle and exits through pulmonary artery to the lungs. Oxygenated blood comes back to the heart in the pulmonary vein. Blood goes through left atrium and left ventricle the exits through the aorta to the body.
Structure of ateries, veins and capillaries to function of each
arteries are large and muscular in order to give a combination of strength and elasticity, which allows them to stretch as pressurized blood enters from the heart. capillaries are small network of tiny vessels that transport blood and nutrients into the parts of the body. vein is a large blood vessel that caries blood to the heart. it returns deoygenated blood.
Pulmonary artery vs aorta
the pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs. the aorta carries oxygenated blood to the body
Pulmonary veins vs inferior vena cava
the pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood to the heart, while inferior vena cava carry deoxygenated blood to the heart
Role of lympahtic system
the lymphatic system returns lymph, fluid that has collected in the tissues to the bloodstream
Function of each component of blood
plasma is a straw-colored fluid that is about 90 percent water and includes metabolites, nutrients, wastes, salts, and proteins. cells receive nutrients from dissolved substances carried in the plasma.
RBC transport oxygen to cells in all parts of the body.
WBC help defend body against disease. Platelets are essential to the formation of a blood clot
What structure to red blood cells lack that limits their life span
They have no nuclei
3 differences between white blood cells and red blood cells
RBC Transport oxygen, WBC defend against pathogens.
WBC larger and less plentiful than RBC.
RBC live a few months, WBC live for years
How does blood clot
the blood vessel gets damaged. the platelets release clotting protein. clotting reaction occurs. fibrin net forms, trapping blood cells and platelets. blood clots.
What is the ABO blood typing system
Classifies blood by the antigens on the surface of RBCs and the antibodies circulating int he plasma. An individual's blood may contain a antigen, b antigen, both, or neither. The antigen patterns are called blood types.
What's the role of Rh factor to determine blood compatibility for transfusion
if an rh- person receives a transfusion of blood that has rh+ antigens, antibodies may react with the antigen and agglutination will occur.
External vs internal respiration
external respiration is the exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the blood. internal respiration is the exchange of gases between the blood and the cells of the body
Take oxygen from air to blood
Nasal cavity, pharynx, epiglottis, larynx, and trachea into the lungs, bronchus, to the bronchiole, into the alevoli, which then diffuses into the capillaries
Campare transport and exchange of oxygen and CO2
oxygen and carbon dioxide both transport by binding through hemoglobin. carbon dioxide, however, is more commonly transported as bicarbonate ions
Describe diaphragham and rib in inspiration and expiration
during inspiration, the chest expands as muscles contract to move the ribs up and outward. at the same time, the diaphragm flattens and pushes down on the abdomen. during expiration, the elastic tissues of the lungs recoil and deflate the lungs. the volume of the lungs decrease. the diaphragm relaxes.
what factor stimulates the brain stem to incrase the breathing rate
concentration of CO2
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