Chapter 7 - Lecture
Terms in this set (75)
structures formed when two or more bones or cartilages are united to each other or to teeth by some type of connective tissue
involve two skeletal structures
involve three or more skeletal structures
carpal, tarsal, and cubital joints
Three major categories of joints
fibrous joints (synarthroses), cartilaginous joints, and synovial joints (diarthroses)
Fibrous joints include
includes sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses (dentoalveolar joints)
Cartilaginous joints include
include symphyses (fibrocartilaginous joints), and synchodroses (hyaline cartilage joints)
Synovial joints are divided
into 7 categories cased on the type of movement that the shapes of their articular surface allows
What type of joint cavity do synovial joints have?
a joint cavity filled with synovial fluid
What is involved in a joint cavity?
the joint cavity is created by a joint capsule which has (outer) fibrous and (inner) synovial membrane layers
Function of specialized cells in the synovial membrane
they secrete synovial fluid which has lubricating and nourishing roles
What are the articular surface on synovial joints covered with?
hyaline cartilage called articular cartilage
connective tissue proper bands (cords) that stabilize the skeletal components of joints
Ligaments associated with synovial joints
classified as intracapsular, extracapsular, or capsular based on their location relative to the joint capsule
What are menisci and articular discs?
fibrocartilaginous structures found between the articulating bones in some synovial joints
What do the joints of the head include?
a number of sutures, a few synchondroses, the dentoalveolar joints (gomphoses, temporomandibular joints, atlanto-occipital joints, and joints of the auditory ossicles
What do the joints of the vertebral column include?
atlanto-axial joints, the intervetebral symphyses, and the zygapophyseal joints (between articular processes of the vertebrae)
What do the thoracic cage joints include?
the joints joining the heads and tubercles of the ribs to the vertebrae
the junctions of the ribs and costal cartilages
joints between costal cartilages and between these cartilages and the sternum
and the two joints between the three parts of the sternum
All joints involving the skeleton of the superior limb are...
synovial joints with the exception of the radio-ulnar syndesmosis
Where are the joints of the pectoral girdle?
they are those at both ends of the clavicles
Major joints in the free parts of the superior limb
include the shoulder, elbow carpal, and "digital" joints
is the simple joint between the humeral head and the glenoid cavity of the scapula
the composite articulation with three named subparts:
-proximal radio-ulnar joints
What do the carpal joints include?
includes the radiocarpal, intercarpal, and carpometacarpal articulations
What do the "digital" joints of the hand include?
the metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints
All joints of the inferior limb are...
synovial with the exception of the pubic symphysis and the tibiofibular syndesmosis
What is the hip joint?
a classic ball and socket (spheroidal) joint with a well-developed intracapsular ligament
What does the knee joint contain?
two menisci and two strong intracapsular ligaments
What does the tarsal (ankle) joint contain?
like it's counterpart in the superior limb, includes numerous articulations
"Digital" joints of the foot
the metatarsophalangeal and interphalangeal joints
Flexion and extension
involve angular changes within sagittal planes
movement of joint components such that the flexor angle decreases in size (or the extensor angle increases in size)
The flexor/extensor surfaces of all joints are defined
limbs, digits, and hands can be adducted/abducted, and reference is made to the joint at which motion occurred
Adduction and abduction
involve motions within the coronal planes
pronation, supination, inversion, eversion
movement of a body part around its long axis
Bones, muscles, and joints form
lever systems that effect locomotion and posture
A lever system requires
a rigid bar (lever arm), a force, a point of rotation (fulcrum), and a resistance
Lever systems divisions
first, second, third classes depending on the relative positions of the force, fulcrum, and resistance on the lever arm
What can all simple levers at equilibrium be quantified by?
the moment arm equation
What are most lever systems in the body classified as?
What is the moment arm equation?
Where F and R are the force and resistance and D(f) and D(r) are the distances of the force and resistance from the fulcrum
a fibrocartilaginous structure that occurs within a few synovial joints
What are the two "articular discs" in the knee called?
a joint in which cartilage unties the skeletal structures
List the composite joints
carpal, tarsal, and cubital joints
What is the uniting material of the cartilaginous joints?
in some, (synchondroses) hyaline cartilage serves as the uniting material
in others, the uniting material is fibrocartilage (symphyses)
Gomphosis (dentoalveolar joint)
a fibrous joint between the root(s) of a tooth and the dental alveolus in which it is embedded
the fibrous connective tissue connecting the bone and tooth
the fibrocartilaginous structures located at the intervertebral symphyses
the gelatinous center of an i.v. disc (nucleus pulposus) is sometimes forced through the outer part (anulus fibrosus) resulting in pressure on the spinal cord or roots of a spinal nerve
a connective tissue capsule that surrounds a synovial joint cavity
the space inside an articular capsule of a synovial joint
What space is common to several or all compartments of some composite joint?
a malalignment of the skeletal components at a joint
usually traumatic in origin, luxations typically involve significant ligamentous and joint capsule damage
a joint with only two skeletal component
Simple joint examples
bone to bone
bone to cartilage
cartilage to cartilage
bone to tooth
List simple joints
shoulder joint, hip joint, and all interphalangeal joints
a fibrous joint between flat bones of the skull
How many sutures are named?
What are most sutures?
a fibrocartilage joint
In the intervertebral symphyses, the bones are united by...
fibrocartilaginous structures called intervertebral discs
What is the pubic symphysis stabilized by?
The interpubic disc
a joint stabilized by fibrous connective tissue and lacking a cavity (i.e.: a fibrous joint)
Subtypes of synarthrosis
sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses
a hyaline cartilage joint
costochondral joints, some of the joints in the base of the neurocranium and the joints formed by the epiphyseal cartilages in growing bones
a fibrous joint between the radius and ulna, tibia and fibula, or stapes and temporal bone
Antebrachial interosseous membrane
Crural interosseous membrane
a bony union
can occur with normal maturation in many loci, can be iatrogenically induced, and in some cases are pathological
the lubricating and nourishing fluid secreted by the synoviocytes located in synovial membranes
"Water on the knee"
injury to a joint inducing a hypersecretion of synovial fluid
any joint which has, as one of its features, a joint (articular) cavity containing synovial fluid
Synovial joints examples
most of the joints found in the limbs and many of the joints in the axial skeleton