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the practice of an empire by founding colonies or conquering other nations.

What motivates imperialism

raw materials and new markets where one can sell goods.

William H. Seward

He was secretary of state under Johnson and Lincoln. He helped purchase Alaska from Russia.

Seward's Folly

Name that refers to State of Secretary Seward's purchase of Alaska for 7.2 million in 1867.


a national policy of avoiding involvement in world affairs

Alfred Thayer Mahan

US Admiral who encouraged the US to strengthen its naval power to become a world power.


Became a US territory in 1900 and the 50th state in 1959


One of the raw materials located here, which was why the US wanted Hawaii

King Kalakaua

Hawaiian King who was forced to change his nation's constitution to favor American business

McKinley Tariff

A tariff in 1890 that allowed all countries to ship sugar duty-free to the United States, lowered the price of sugar which hurt Hawaii causing it's economy to collapse


a government payment that supports a business or market


Hawaian monarch (queen) forced to give up the throne after a revolt by American planters. Grover Cleveland did not immediately annex Hawaii, but by 1989 the U.S. annexed Hawaii.

Matthew Perry

Commodore of the US Navy who opened up Japan with the Treaty of Kanagawa

Meiji Restoration

In Japan, the reign of emperor Meiji from 1868 to 1912 which was marked by rapid modernization and industrialization.

Japanese Immigrants going to Hawaii

They did so because workers were needed to work the sugar fields of American farmers.

Townsend Harris

the first diplomatic representative that America sent to Japan

Japan China 1894

war erupted between the two countries over Korea in 1894 (which at the time was part of the Chinese Empire) --> surprisingly, Japan defeated China --> in the peace treaty, China granted Korea independence

spheres of influence

areas in which countries have some political and economic control but do not govern directly

Open Door Policy

a policy, proposed by the United States in 1899, under which all nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China

Boxer Rebellion

A 1900 Uprising in China aimed at ending foreign influence in the country.

yellow journalism

Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers


Spanish Concentration Camps located in Cuba

Joseph Pulitzer

publisher of "New York World" who used yellow journalism, was very critical of the Spanish

William Randolph Hearst

A leading newspaperman of his times, he ran The New York Journal and helped create and propagate "yellow (sensationalist) journalism."

Frederic Remington

Artist sent by Hearst to draw sketches in Cuba, drew Spanish officials disrobing and searching an American woman

USS Maine

Ship that explodes off the coast of Cuba in Havana harbor and helps contribute to the start of the Spanish-American War

Teller Amendment

Legislation that promised the US would not annex Cuba after winning the Spanish-American war

War with Spain

This started in 1898.

First battle of Spanish-American War occurred here.

Manila Bay in the Philippines.

Emilio Aguinaldo

Filipino General - helped US take Philipines during Spanish-American war - helped Philippines gain freedom from US

Emilio Sabourin

One of the founders of Cuban baseball.

Rough Riders

Volunteer soldiers led by Theodore Roosevelt during the Spanish American War.

San Juan Hill

Site of the most famous battle of the Spanish-American war, where Theodore Roosevelt successfully leads the Rough Riders in a charge against the Spanish trenches

El Caney

Was the location other than San Juan Hill where major fighting took place on July 1 in Cuba.

Cuba, Puerto Rico, Philippines, Guam

As the result of the Spanish-American War they all came under U.S. control.

Anti-Imperialist League

Group that argued against American imperialism in the late 1890s.

Dr. Walter Reed

Doctor who was the head of the Army's Yellow Fever Commission. He proved that Yellow Fever and Malaria was transmitted by Mosquitoes.

Platt Amendment

Legislation that severely restricted Cuba's sovereignty and gave the US the right to intervene if Cuba got into trouble.

Dollar Diplomacy

Term used to describe the efforts of the US to further its foreign policy through use of economic, not military, intervention.

Panama Canal

Ship canal cut across the isthmus of Panama by United States Army engineers; it opened in 1915. It greatly shortened the sea voyage between the east and west coasts of North America.

Gatun Locks

Locks on the Panama Canal used to raise and lower ships as needed to pass through the canal.

Clayton-Bulwer Treaty

A treaty which called for the US and Britain to jointly construct a canal (but it never happened)

John Hay

Negotiated the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty to build Panama Canal with Britain in 1901, US secretary of state

Hay-Pauncefote Treaty

1901 - Great Britain recognized U.S. Sphere of Influence over the Panama canal zone provided the canal itself remained neutral. U.S. given full control over construction and management of the canal.

Hay-Herran Treaty

A treaty proposed in 1903 between the United States and Colombia over Panama. It was rejected by the Colombian Senate and caused the U.S. to support a bid for the independence for Panama, so that they could build the canal.

Philippe Bunau-Varilla

French engineer who advocated an American canal through Panama and helped instigate a Panamanian rebellion against Colombia.

Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty

Agreement in 1903 Agreement that gave the United States unending sovereignty over a 10 mile wide canal across the Isthmus of Panama

Why was it hard to build the Panama Canal?

Tropical disease and dangerous work such as the need to use explosives.

51 miles

Length of Panama Canel

10 miles

Width of Canal Zone.

Number of lives lost building the Panama Canal?


Monroe Doctrine

An American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers. It was hard for the U.S. to enforce this without a strong Navy.

Roosevelt Corollary

This states that the United States will intervene in conflicts between European Nations and Latin American countries to enforce legitimate claims of the European powers, rather than having the Europeans press their claims directly.

Porfirio Diaz

A dictator who dominated Mexico, permitted foreign companies to develop natural resources and had allowed landowners to buy much of the countries land from poor peasants

Francisco Madero

Moderate democratic Mexican reformer; challenged Porfiío Díaz in 1910 and initiated the Mexican Revolution. Assassinated in 1913.

Mexican Revolution

This started in 1910,. was characterized by several movements and leaders, and culminated in the Mexican Constitution of 1917 Led by Fransico Madero

Victoriano Huerta

He ruthlessly seized power in Mexico in 1913. President Wilson objected to his murderous methods and refused to extend diplomatic recognition to his government. He abdicated in 1914.

Venustiano Carranza

Mexican revolutionist and politician; he led forces against Vitoriano Huerta during the Mexican Revolution.

Francisco Villa

Mexican revolutionary that led a rebellion against Huerta, new leader of Mexico. He was located in the north. He continued his revolt against Carranza even after Huerta was out of power.

Emiliano Zapata

Leading figure in the Mexican Revolution, gathered army in southern Mexico and was against Huerta. He continued his revolt against Carranza even after Huerta was out of power.

USS Dolphin

The ship in which American soldiers were arrested in the port of Tampico under Huerta's control, even though they were released, it still gave the US reason to fight

ABC Powers

The South American countries of Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, which attempted to mediate a dispute between Mexico and the United States in 1914.

John J. Pershing

US general who chased Villa over 300 miles into Mexico but didn't capture him


This is when peace returned to Mexico.


This is when the Mexican Revolution started.

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