65 terms

Social Studies - Chapter 10

the practice of an empire by founding colonies or conquering other nations.
What motivates imperialism
raw materials and new markets where one can sell goods.
William H. Seward
He was secretary of state under Johnson and Lincoln. He helped purchase Alaska from Russia.
Seward's Folly
Name that refers to State of Secretary Seward's purchase of Alaska for 7.2 million in 1867.
a national policy of avoiding involvement in world affairs
Alfred Thayer Mahan
US Admiral who encouraged the US to strengthen its naval power to become a world power.
Became a US territory in 1900 and the 50th state in 1959
One of the raw materials located here, which was why the US wanted Hawaii
King Kalakaua
Hawaiian King who was forced to change his nation's constitution to favor American business
McKinley Tariff
A tariff in 1890 that allowed all countries to ship sugar duty-free to the United States, lowered the price of sugar which hurt Hawaii causing it's economy to collapse
a government payment that supports a business or market
Hawaian monarch (queen) forced to give up the throne after a revolt by American planters. Grover Cleveland did not immediately annex Hawaii, but by 1989 the U.S. annexed Hawaii.
Matthew Perry
Commodore of the US Navy who opened up Japan with the Treaty of Kanagawa
Meiji Restoration
In Japan, the reign of emperor Meiji from 1868 to 1912 which was marked by rapid modernization and industrialization.
Japanese Immigrants going to Hawaii
They did so because workers were needed to work the sugar fields of American farmers.
Townsend Harris
the first diplomatic representative that America sent to Japan
Japan China 1894
war erupted between the two countries over Korea in 1894 (which at the time was part of the Chinese Empire) --> surprisingly, Japan defeated China --> in the peace treaty, China granted Korea independence
spheres of influence
areas in which countries have some political and economic control but do not govern directly
Open Door Policy
a policy, proposed by the United States in 1899, under which all nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China
Boxer Rebellion
A 1900 Uprising in China aimed at ending foreign influence in the country.
yellow journalism
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers
Spanish Concentration Camps located in Cuba
Joseph Pulitzer
publisher of "New York World" who used yellow journalism, was very critical of the Spanish
William Randolph Hearst
A leading newspaperman of his times, he ran The New York Journal and helped create and propagate "yellow (sensationalist) journalism."
Frederic Remington
Artist sent by Hearst to draw sketches in Cuba, drew Spanish officials disrobing and searching an American woman
USS Maine
Ship that explodes off the coast of Cuba in Havana harbor and helps contribute to the start of the Spanish-American War
Teller Amendment
Legislation that promised the US would not annex Cuba after winning the Spanish-American war
War with Spain
This started in 1898.
First battle of Spanish-American War occurred here.
Manila Bay in the Philippines.
Emilio Aguinaldo
Filipino General - helped US take Philipines during Spanish-American war - helped Philippines gain freedom from US
Emilio Sabourin
One of the founders of Cuban baseball.
Rough Riders
Volunteer soldiers led by Theodore Roosevelt during the Spanish American War.
San Juan Hill
Site of the most famous battle of the Spanish-American war, where Theodore Roosevelt successfully leads the Rough Riders in a charge against the Spanish trenches
El Caney
Was the location other than San Juan Hill where major fighting took place on July 1 in Cuba.
Cuba, Puerto Rico, Philippines, Guam
As the result of the Spanish-American War they all came under U.S. control.
Anti-Imperialist League
Group that argued against American imperialism in the late 1890s.
Dr. Walter Reed
Doctor who was the head of the Army's Yellow Fever Commission. He proved that Yellow Fever and Malaria was transmitted by Mosquitoes.
Platt Amendment
Legislation that severely restricted Cuba's sovereignty and gave the US the right to intervene if Cuba got into trouble.
Dollar Diplomacy
Term used to describe the efforts of the US to further its foreign policy through use of economic, not military, intervention.
Panama Canal
Ship canal cut across the isthmus of Panama by United States Army engineers; it opened in 1915. It greatly shortened the sea voyage between the east and west coasts of North America.
Gatun Locks
Locks on the Panama Canal used to raise and lower ships as needed to pass through the canal.
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
A treaty which called for the US and Britain to jointly construct a canal (but it never happened)
John Hay
Negotiated the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty to build Panama Canal with Britain in 1901, US secretary of state
Hay-Pauncefote Treaty
1901 - Great Britain recognized U.S. Sphere of Influence over the Panama canal zone provided the canal itself remained neutral. U.S. given full control over construction and management of the canal.
Hay-Herran Treaty
A treaty proposed in 1903 between the United States and Colombia over Panama. It was rejected by the Colombian Senate and caused the U.S. to support a bid for the independence for Panama, so that they could build the canal.
Philippe Bunau-Varilla
French engineer who advocated an American canal through Panama and helped instigate a Panamanian rebellion against Colombia.
Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty
Agreement in 1903 Agreement that gave the United States unending sovereignty over a 10 mile wide canal across the Isthmus of Panama
Why was it hard to build the Panama Canal?
Tropical disease and dangerous work such as the need to use explosives.
51 miles
Length of Panama Canel
10 miles
Width of Canal Zone.
Number of lives lost building the Panama Canal?
Monroe Doctrine
An American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers. It was hard for the U.S. to enforce this without a strong Navy.
Roosevelt Corollary
This states that the United States will intervene in conflicts between European Nations and Latin American countries to enforce legitimate claims of the European powers, rather than having the Europeans press their claims directly.
Porfirio Diaz
A dictator who dominated Mexico, permitted foreign companies to develop natural resources and had allowed landowners to buy much of the countries land from poor peasants
Francisco Madero
Moderate democratic Mexican reformer; challenged Porfiío Díaz in 1910 and initiated the Mexican Revolution. Assassinated in 1913.
Mexican Revolution
This started in 1910,. was characterized by several movements and leaders, and culminated in the Mexican Constitution of 1917 Led by Fransico Madero
Victoriano Huerta
He ruthlessly seized power in Mexico in 1913. President Wilson objected to his murderous methods and refused to extend diplomatic recognition to his government. He abdicated in 1914.
Venustiano Carranza
Mexican revolutionist and politician; he led forces against Vitoriano Huerta during the Mexican Revolution.
Francisco Villa
Mexican revolutionary that led a rebellion against Huerta, new leader of Mexico. He was located in the north. He continued his revolt against Carranza even after Huerta was out of power.
Emiliano Zapata
Leading figure in the Mexican Revolution, gathered army in southern Mexico and was against Huerta. He continued his revolt against Carranza even after Huerta was out of power.
USS Dolphin
The ship in which American soldiers were arrested in the port of Tampico under Huerta's control, even though they were released, it still gave the US reason to fight
ABC Powers
The South American countries of Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, which attempted to mediate a dispute between Mexico and the United States in 1914.
John J. Pershing
US general who chased Villa over 300 miles into Mexico but didn't capture him
This is when peace returned to Mexico.
This is when the Mexican Revolution started.