APUSH America's History Henretta Chapter 2
Terms in this set (27)
Ownership of human beings as property.
Colonists wanted to create their colonies into these.
Permission from the crown to claim tribute in labor and goods from Indian communities.
Maize, potatoes, manioc, sweet potatoes, and tomatoes to east. Technology,livestock, slaves and disease to west.
The practice of merchants to send raw materials (wool) to landless peasants in small cottages to spin and weave into cloth.
State-assisted manufacturing and trade. Reduce imports and increase exports.
House of Burgesses
A system of representative government, first in 1619, by the Virginia Company. Could make laws and levy taxes but the governor and the company council in England could veto its acts. 1622 saw land-ownership and self-government and an English based judicial system attracted 4500 people, helping it transition to a settler colony.
James I in 1624 made Virginia this after Indian uprising. King and his ministers appointed the governor and a small advisory council. Kept House of Burgess's but now king's Privy Council must ratify all legislation.
Farms of 30-50 acres owned and farmed by families or male partners. However logic of plantation agriculture soon encouraged consolidation. They bought as much land as they could in order to monopolize.
Guaranteed 50 acres of land to anyone who paid passage of new immigrant to the colony. Giving even larger land claims to land owners.
Contracts that bounded the people to work for a master for 4 or 5 years after which they would be free and work for themselves. A lot still lived a hard life, impoverished and sometimes even entered themselves back into indentured servitude.
Religious separatists, Puritans that left the Church of England, that fled to the Netherlands and then to the Americas aboard the Mayflower.
Protestants who did not separate from the Church of England but hoped to purify it of its ceremony and hierarchy- fled to America.
A commercial agreement that allows investors to pool their resources. Winthrop and his associates who governed the Massachusetts Bay Colony founded one to form a representative political system with a governor, council, and assembly.
Many Puritans embraced this, the idea that God would only save the chosen few.
Roger Williams, a Puritan minister in Salem, advocated that political magistrates had authority over only the "bodies, goods and outward estates of men". Not their Spiritual lives.
covenant of works
Anne Hutchinson denied that this would save the well behaved
covenant of grace
Anne Hutchinson believed only through this would God save those he predestined for salvation.
The main institution of local government in 17th century colonies.
Ruler of Spain who was an ardent Catholic. He wanted to root out all challenges to the Catholic Church wherever they appeared.
Most famous of Elizabethan sea dogs who worked to diminish Spanish control of American wealth on the oceans.
Powhatan's younger brother and successor. Led in 1607 and in 1622 assaults against the colonists and almost succeeded in ending the English settlement.
Developed the second tobacco- growing colony of Maryland and establishes it as a refuge for Catholicism.
Led 900 migrant Puritan exodus to Massachusetts Bay and became first governor. Called England morally corrupt and "overburdened with people". He sought land for his children and a place in Christian history for his people.
Williams and his followers settled in Rhode island because he opposed the decision to establish an official religion and praised the Pilgrims' separation of church and state.
Seen as a second threat to Massachusetts Bay magistrates because of her religious views. Accused Boston Clergymen of placing undue emphasis on good behavior and held weekly prayer meetings for women. Declared that God "revealed" divine truth directly to individual believers, a controversial doctrine that the Puritan magistrates denounced as heretical.
Wampanoag leader (aka King Philip) believed that prospects for coexistence looked dim because when his people adopted English ways by raising hogs and selling pork in Boston Puritan officials accused them of selling at an under rate and restricted their trade. Meanwhile Indians killed wandering hogs that devastated their cornfields, authorities prosecuted them for violating English property wrights. So he forged a military alliance with the Narragansett and Nippmucks and attacked white settlements throughout New England, spreading fear. Ultimately they were defeated famine, disease, death in battle and sale into slavery.