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Terms in this set (78)
who is Hrothgar?
king of the Dans (people of Denmark)
What is Herot?
A wooden, large mead hall where men of the community go to meet, celebrate , eat, sleep,ect
What words and phrases intros sections does the poet use to establish Grendel as a fearsome creature.
b)demon, fiend , haunts the moons
c)spawned in slime
what antagonizes Grendel and motivates him to attack Herot?
the men are happy , enjoy music, live in nature's beauty , enjoy each other company in the mead hall, know Gods love- all things he can not do (he's jealous )
Grendel is descended from two creatures "born of Cain". In what way does this lineage suggest that Grendel is evil?
In Genesis , cain intentionally kills his brother Abel ,becoming history's first murderer. " The Beowulf Poet " portrays Grendel as a descendant of Cain to emphasize the monster's inherent evil
" A brood [of supernatural creatures is] forever opposing the Lord's will , and again and again defeated ." what universal theme might these lines suggest?
Good triumphing over evil or God triumphing over the Devil
Give details of Grendel's attack
He sneaks up at night, grabs 30 men and smashes them, runs out with their bodies, takes them to his lair as food
Name a specific ancient ancestor of Grendel's
what happens to Herot?
the mead hall stays empty for years : 12 years winters. it is constantly attacked by Grendel who would not agree to any kind of truce or playoff . Grendel never touches the king's throne because it is protected by God
Give a good example of alliteration from this section and explain the mood it sets
'living down/ in the darkness...." conveys a menacing mood evil"
who is Beowulf?
a young warrior from Geatland (Sweden). he is "strongest of the Geats" and "greater and stronger than anyone anywhere in the world"
where is Beowulf from?
Geatland (southern tip of what is now Sweden )
who is Higlac ,and how is Beowulf related to him?
king of Geats and Beowulf's uncle
List the qualities of an epic hero and give one example of how Beowulf possesses each trait
a) of noble birth/high position : he is the nephew of the king
b)a historical/legendary importance: he has driven 5 giants from the earth and hunted and killed monsters from the ocean to save the Danish people
c) character traits reflect society's ideals : he generous and brave , voluntarily going to Hrothgar's aid, with the support of the Geats
d)performs deeds with courage/strength:courageously kills giants And monsters with his superhuman strength
e)performs action that determine that fate of the nation/group :killing those giants and monsters saves the Danes
what does Beowulf decide to do after he initially hears about Grendel? Why?
He decides to go help Hrothagar, the king of the Danes, get rid of the monster Grendel. he chooses the bravest and the best - 14 of them , gets a boat and sets sail for the "Danish shore"
Why do Beowulf's kinsmen urge him to go ? (lines 114-119)
because Hrothgar needed the help and because Beowulf was loved by the Geats. They believed the "omens were good" and it was Beowulf's duty to go . They share the same character traits of generously and bravery
How did Beowulf hear about the wrath of Grendel (lines 144-145)
sailors brought the stories of Herot and Grendel's attacks at night
List the two things Beowulf's boast he's accomplished (lines 151-160)
a) Drove 5 giants into chains and chased all of that race from the earth
b)hunted and killed one by one the monster of the ocean
Beowulf's boast require superhuman strength and courage. why might the people of his time value these traits ?
they valued strength and courage because they were frequently attacked by enemies
why does Beowulf insist that "my hands alone shall fight for me"?
because Grendel "needs no weapon," Beowulf feels that fighting him with "hand alone" gives Beowulf no advantage and thus make the fight fair. Beowulf is also demonstrating his courage to Higlac and other
why wouldn't the Danes have to sew shrouds for the Greats if Grendel triumphs ?
(SHROUDS are cloth to cover dead bodies before burial ) Grendel all carry their bloody flesh o the moon, crunch their bones, and smear torn scraps of skin on the wall of his den(lair)- there won't be anything to bury
what is significant about Beowulf's statement," Fate will unwind as it must"?
Beowulf is realistic about the possible outcome and recognizes his limitations in the upcoming fight
in lines 207-210, the mood becomes bleak and despairing due to alliteration. what examples of alliteration suggest this mood?
"My tough grows heavy and my heart ," when I try to tell you...,"the damage he's done ,"" here in this hall."
in Hrothgar 's long speech to Beowulf in lines 190-224 , what values are reflected ?
Friendship, loyalty , and courage : 109-207 - Hrothgar describes how he helped Beowulf'f father Edgetho appease the anger of the Wulfings .He concludes. his speech by describing his great need to end Grendel's reign of terror
when does Grendel arrive at Herot ?
The night after the banquet
from where does Grendel come?
out of the marsh from the foot of misty hills and bogs
In what way does the rhythm created by the caesuras reinforce the action recounted here ? Give a specific example and explain
they rhythm of the lines reflect the relentless, ominous approach of Grendelas he advances on Herot: "Grendel came, hoping to kill"
what drives Grendel to attack so many men at Herot the mead hall?
Grende kills out of hunger , jealousy of the men's camaraderie and merrymaking and his rage at the men because he has been denied God's grace and love
what surprise Grendel when he comes in contact with Beowulf ?
1) Beowulf was awake and ready
2)Beowulf instantly seizes him and bends back his claw to his arm
3)Grendel never faced such a strong man -none "whose hands were harder"and "his mind as flooded with fear"
what character traits of an epic hero does Beowulf display in this section list examples of how he displays these traits
a)courage/superhuman strength : face Grendel without a weapon, seizes Grendel's claws prevents Grendel from escaping
b)character traits feflect society's ideals : courage ous and brave in fighting Grendel
c)performs action that determines the fate of a nation:kills Grendel and saves Denmark and hrothgar's men and people
what impression of the battle does the alliteration help convey?list the example of alliteration
The repletion of hard b sounds convey the impression of blows and impacts of a hard-fought battle:"bodies beating at its beautiful walls"
why can't Beowulf men's sword penetrate Grendel's skin and harm him ?
Grendel has "bewitched all the men's weapons, laid spells that blunted every mortal's blade"-their sword have no effect when they strike Grendel
why might "the Beowulf poet" used the figure phrase "open a path for his evil soul " rather than simply write slay or wound?
evil soul reinforces the idea that Grendel is a creature of evil, a monster from hell (descendant of Cain)
how does Beowulf kill Grendel?
He rips off his shoulder. Grendel escapes but only flee to his hair at the bottom of the marsh as he waits to die
why does Beowulf hang Grendel's arm from the rafters of Herot after Grendel escapes?
Grendel's arm serves as a symbol of Beowulf's great victory- a battle trophy
how important is Beowulf to the fate of Denmark? is fulfilling a trait of an epic hero? Explain.
in defeating Grendel , Beowulf has saved the Danes from the monster, ending " the grief, sorrow, the stuffering / force on the Danes". He fulfilled the trait of performing an action (killing Grendel) that determines the fate (their survival ) of a nation (Denmark)
give 2 descriptions of Grendel in the form of alliteration from this section
a)"flooded with fear"
b)"the monster's mind was hot/with the thought of food"
list 4 very specific details of Herot in the form of caesura from this section?
a)"the high hail rang , its roof boards swayed"
b)"Herot trembled, wonderfully..."
c)"its benches rattled, fell"
d)"built to withstand the blows, the struggling..."
list two kenning that " the Beowulf poet" uses in this section to support Grendel as an evil creature and two kenning to support Beowulf as an epic hero
a) shepherd of evil, guardian of crime
b)sin-stained demon , bloodthirsty friend
a) mighty protector of men
b)Higlac's brave follower
who has " reversed/The bright vane of [the Danes'] luck"?
why does Grendel's mother take and killed one of the Danes? Explain the significance of the "single victim" she chooses
she takes and kills a soldier to avenge her son's death ; she chooses " Hrogthar's closest friend / the man he most loved all men on earth "
what two things does Grendel's mother take back with her from Herot?
she takes Hrothgar's (king of the Danes) murdered best friend and she take Grendel's arm
in what sort of place does Grendel's mother live ? Give a detailed description
dark dark lair-a cold and gloomy lake with storm-tossed blacked waves ( its very deep -it takes hours to reach the bottom. at night the lake burns like a torch. The lair is full of other monsters that attack . underwater battle hall, a fiery lake)
what does Hrothgar beg Beowulf to do? what will he reward him with?
a) find Grendel's mother lair to kill her (and save them)
b)his reward is payment of "gold heaped up treasure " from the lair ( he DID NOT get paid anything for killing Grendel because Hrothgar once saved Beowulf's father and the Gates from attack; therefore, Beowulf returned the fave by killing Grendel for free)
where does Beowulf find Grendel's mother ?
he has to dive 4 hours to the muddy bottom of the lake ; she finds him, attacks him and takes him to her lair; other monster come to see and take part. her home is a battle hall bright with light/ flame
what protects him from her claws?
his chest mail protects him but his sword Hruthing cannot hurt Grendel's mother
What is Beowulf's motivation in accomplishing this deed?
he longed for FAME
What is Beowulf's helmet ?
Grendel's mother bites holes in it
what does the light suggest in lines 526-528 suggests about Beowulf's victory?
that good has triumphed over evil, and heaven has triumphed over evil, and heaven has triumphed over hell
how does Beowulf killed Grendel's mother ? what weapon does he use?
a sword hanging on the wall- a massive magical sword hammered by giant,although all that remains of the sword is the hit
what does Beowulf do before leaving Grendel's mother's lair?
he finds Grendel's body and cuts his head off
what do the Danes who are observing at the lake do ?why?
they think Beowulf has been killed when they see blood come to the surface so they leave
what do the Geats do?
they are loyal and faithful, staying because they cannot believe they will never see him again
what do lines 549-555 suggest about attitudes toward fame in the Anglelo-Saxon period ?
that people judged a man's life by his action and that fame was of paramount importance
what 2 items does Beowulf carry with him back to Herot ?
-Giant's sword hilt
Compare Grendel with Grendel's mother .Does the behavior of Grendel's mother seem as wicked or unreasonable as Grendel's behavior? Explain by using support from the text
Grendel's mother behavior is more understandable because she is motivated by a desire to avenge her son's death, not just a lust for killing like Grendel is
give a good example of alliteration from this section and explain in mood it sets
"sae the waves surging and blood/spurting through":mood is sad and grieving because the men think it is Beowulf's and that he is dead
give a good example of caesura from this section and explain why the placement of the pause is significant
"then he saw,hanging on the wall , a heaving/sword": the placement of the pause is important because the dramatic pause lets the reader know that Beowulf has found an important weapon- probably the one that will kill Grendel's mother
give a good example of a kenning from this section , explaining what It suggest about the concrete noun it represent
"mighty water witch":suggest that Grendel's mother is supernaturally strong ,lives in her lake-lair , is magically hard to defeat, and is evil
what does the title of the section foreshadow?
what is Beowulf's future when he returns to Geatland?
when Higlac (the king of the Greats ) dies , Beowulf because king and rules for 50 years
what happens when Beowulf strikes his enemy with his sword ?
he draws blood, but the sword cracks and breaks off before it goes deep enough into the dragon to cause any significant wound
what do Beowulf's comrades do in this battle ?
they are faithless cowards and do not stand and fight with Beowulf; they run away in fear the forest
list the qualities of an epic hero found and give one example of how Beowulf posses each trait
a)performs deeds with courage/strength :he faced death courageously,just as he has always faced danger
b)performs action that determine the fate of a nation: he fights on, even when he knows that fate has turned against him
who is his loyal solider ?
Wiglaf. He tries to get the others to come with him to fight with Beowulf , but when they do not, he goes in to help Beowulf
what has happened to Beowulf ?
He has been mortally wounded in his battle with the dragon
"The Beowulf Poet"writes the Beowulf knew "he'd unwound /his string of days on earth" what view of fate does this image suggest?
that life is of a certain length and no longer . Once the string of life is unwind ,it cannot be rewound
Beowulf summarizes his fifty year reign in lines 744-755. what ideals are reflected in his speech?
Beowulf's speech reflects such ideas as peace, justice,family,loyalty ,honesty, and honor
why does Beowulf request that Wiglaf bring him the dragon's treasure ?
He can die more easily if he can see the treasure he is going to leave to his people
how do Beowulf and Wiglaf defeat the dragon ?
Beowulf's sword remnant shatters and the dragon wounds him in the neck. Wilglaf strikes at the dragon with Beowulf and they succeed in the killing the dragon
Beowulf asks Wiglaf to have the Greats to build him a tall tower by the sea when he is gone so soldiers can see it and remember his name. Why is it important to Beowulf to leave a legacy behind?
he wants future generation to remember him as a legendary hero so that his life and death will have had a meaning
what is the fate of Wiglaf ?
Beowulf gives him his golden necklace, his golden helmet, his ring and mail shirt because Wiglaf will now be king. Wiglaf then attacks the traitors verbally and tells them they cannot share in the treasure and that they must face their shame
what happens to Beowulf ? what is his desire?
He dies leaving Wiglaf to rule as king(after he is burned his warriors are to build his tom b high in the form of a tower by the water's edge)
Why are Beowulf's followers referred to as " cowards and traitors "and "shamefaced jackals"?
they abandoned Beowulf when he need the most , leaving him to fight the dragon alone
how do the Greats honor