1st Quarter Flashcard Review [AP Euro]
Terms in this set (100)
19th century historian who formulated the concept that the Renaissance was a "rebirth" or 'resurgence" of classical
Wealthy merchant family of bankers who controlled the Italian city-state of Florence during the Renaissance era. Their subsidization of the arts, especially under Lorenzo, supported the flowering of the Renaissance.
renaissance scholars of classical Greek and Roman works of literature and thought who were advocates
Known as the father of Renaissance Humanism. He committed his life to humanistic pursuits and the study of the classics
Wrote The Book of the Courtier which presented the image of the "Renaissance Man" who was versed in liberal arts and social graces as contrasted to the more unrefined knights in the Middle Ages.
Wrote The Prince which described his view of realistic government with a strong leader concerned only with political power and success and embracing the ideal of seeking to be feared rather than loved by the masses
Leonardo da Vinci
Renaissance sculptor, scientist, engineer, architect, and painter. Most famous works were The Last Supper and Mona Lisa.
was an architect whose work was groundbreaking for its simplicity, symmetry, balance and harmony. He created the largest done built in Europe in a cathedral in Florence.
was a painter who also experimented in poetry, architecture, and sculpture. His most famous works are David and the Sistine Chapel
Van Eyck Brothers
Flemish painters from the Northern Renaissance who applied great attention to detail in their work, particularly in their capturing of human facial expressions.
German artist from the Northern Renaissance who is famous for his woodcuts and copper engravings.
The European inventor of the printing press which allowed books to be printed quickly and economically. This innovation aided the spread of the Renaissance and Reformation ideas throughout Europe.
Dutch scholar who wrote the Praise of Folly. The book criticized the Church's superstition and ignorance. Erasmus is credited with laying the egg that Luther hatched.
English Humanist and author of Utopia, which condemned governments and private property. He was later executed by Henry VIII when he refused to acknowledge him as the head of the new English Church,
Council of Trent
These meetings did not reform church doctrines but they did end several corrupt practices criticized by Reformers within the Church and reasserted traditional Catholic doctrine.
A religious order known as the Society of Jesus, created to strengthen support of the Church during the COunter-REformation. Founded by Ignatius de Loyola and committed to doing good deeds in order to achieve salvation.
Index of Forbidden Books
Written by Pope Paul IV as part of the Counter-Reformation. The Index forbade Catholics from reading books considered "harmful" to faith or morals. This indicates the significance of the printing press in disseminating Reformation ideas.
also known as French Protestants. COnverts to Calvinism in France including many members of the French nobility who wished to challenge the authority of the Catholic monarch.
Edicts of Nantes
Granted Huguenots limited political freedoms. The edict was very unpopular in France among Catholics. It was revoked by Louis XIV in 1685, leading to a massive emigration of French Huguenots.
John Calvin's belief that God had preselected who would be saved and have salvation.
Swiss leader of Protestantism and advocate of predestination.
Priesthood of All Believers
Luther's revolutionary idea that every believer had the ability to read and interpret the Bible, that all people of faith were viewed by God as equals. This challenged the Church's position that priests had an exclusive ability to do so.
Justification of Faith Alone
Luther's ideas revolved around this central tenet that people were led to salvation only through inner faith in God, rather than by participating in worldly rituals and good deeds.
Diet of Worms
Special imperial council in Worms, Germany, to which Martin Luther was summoned after his excommunication 1521. Luther was ordered to abandon his revolutionary ideas, which he refused to do, so he was banished from the empire.
Martin Luther's list of complaints and reforms. He accused Johann Tetzel of wrongdoing in his selling of indulgences and asking people to pay for false promises of exoneration of their sins. Luther's protests spread throughout Europe, igniting the reformation
Monk who was commissioned by Pope Leo X to raise money for the Church by selling indulgences. This outraged Martin Luther and played a role in the start of the Reformation.
had beliefs very similar to Luther, except that he believed that NONE of the sacraments bestowed grace, and that they were purely symbolic.
Criticized the Church and the corruption in its clergy and called for the power of the clergy to be supplanted with the Bible and individual interpretation of it
He questioned transubstantiation and was burned at the stake in 1415.
The Avignon Exile and Great Schism
were both events that greatly undermined both the power and the prestige of the Church, and made many people begin to question its holiness and the absolute power of the Papacy. People realized that the Church was a human institution with its own faults.
the sale of Church positions, which quickly led to people becoming Church officials purely for economic motives, and not for spiritual ones.
having more than one position at a time
broke with the Church forming the Church of England so he could annul his marriage. This had the effect of stimulating the economy since church funds stayed in the country and the church lands were annexed. It also greatly strengthened the Parliament and gave it more responsibility
A new economic theory based on the idea that a country's wealth was measured by the amount of gold and silver it possessed. This led to fierce competition for metallic riches through exploration and imperialism
Treaty of Tordesillas
Agreement between Spain and Portugal to divide the land east and west of the Atlantic Ocean. Spain could explore the New World and Portugal could explore the lands East of Africa
Portuguese navigator who was the first to circumnavigate the globe proving that the world was round and that the New World was not a part of Asia
A pattern of trade in early modern Europe that connected Europe (supplies), Africa (slaves), and the Americas (gold and silver) in an Atlantic economy
The reciprocal importation and exportation of plants and animals between Europe and the Americas
War of the Roses
War between the York and Lancaster houses in England for control of the English crown. Henry Tudor of Lancaster defeated King Richard III of York to set up a strong monarchy in England.
Hundred Years' War
War between England and France which lasted from 1337-1453 France officially won the war and expelled the English from all French lands except Calais
Tudor Queen of England who developed England into a world powerand strengthened Protestantism. Daughter of Henry VIII
Oldest daughter of Henry VIII. Queen of England from 1553-58. Known for her ruthless, deadly suppression of the Anglicanism in attempting to re-Catholicize England.
Mary Queen of Scots
Catholic relative to Protestant Queen Elizabeth I of England. Tried to reassert Catholicism in England.
Fleet of 130 ships launched by Spain's Catholic Philip II to conquer England during the time of Elizabeth I. England was victorious and Spain never again posed a threat to England.
Radical Protestants in England who believed Henry VIII did not take extreme enough measures in merely creating the Anglican Church. They favored "purifying" the new Anglican Church of all similarities to the Catholic Church.
A ruler who suppresses his or her religious desires for his or her kingdom in favor of political expediency. Examples: Elizabeth I (England), Henry IV (France)
Son of Mary Queen of Scots. Believed in divine-right rule and Anglicanism which led to conflict with the largely Puritan Parliament.
Star Chamber Courts
Special courts under England's James I designed to punish political dissenters and Puritans. A symbol of absolutism dating back to Henry VII.
Son of James I and the king of England. Charles fought with the Puritan Parliament over his war expenses, advancing his divine-right of kings, and marrying a Catholic. He was beheaded at the end of the English Civil War.
Puritan leader of the Roundhead army in the English Civil War who defeated Charles I and established a republic, or commonwealth, in England. He ruled as "Lord Protector".
The Cromwell-controlled Parliament that proclaimed England a republic and abolished the House of Lords and Monarchy
Petition of Right
Petition presented to James I of England by Members of Parliament in response to his absolutist tendencies. This stated that the King could not tax without Parliamentary consent, quarter troops in private homes during peacetime, declare war, or imprison a person without a definite charge
Parliament convened by Charles in 1640. It officially lasted twenty years and was involved in the civil war against Charles I.
Scottish form of Protestantism that Charles I of England tried to force conform to Anglican practices. Charles I causes a conflict with Scotland because of this religious difference
Charles VI released this sanction urging all constituent Austrian lands to allow his daughter, Maria Theresa, to inherit Austria and other Hapsburg lands
Frederick William I
Militarized Prussia, created an efficient tax system and furthered education
Frederick II (The Great)
Seized Silesia from Austria, starting the War of Austrian Succession
War of Austrian Succession
Initiated by Prussia's acquisition of Silesia, this war involved Spain, Prussia, and France against Austria, Great Britain, Netherlands and Russia
Major reversal of diplomatic alliances. Great Britain reversed its alliance with Austria and forged a relationship with Prussia, causing France to join with Austria and Russia to check Prussian power
Seven Years' War
War from 1756-63. Began as the "French and Indian War" in North America. Evolved into a war on the European continent resulting form the alliance structure developed in the Diplomatic Revolution and ending with Russia's surprise switch to an alliance with Prussia and a confirmation of Prussia's hold on Silesia.
Treaty of Wesphalia
1648 treaty ending the Thirty Year's War, (the Protestant rebellion against the Holy Roman Empire). France gained Alsace; Netherlands and Switzerland gained independence from the Holy Roman Empire; and the German princes were given near independence from the Empire.
He constructed Versailles, believed in divine right of Kings, engaged in many wars, and established absolutism in France.
A series of rebellions against monarchical rule, lasting from 1649-52
Tories and Whigs
The largely Anglican Tories believed in a hereditary monarchy and favored allowing Charles II's Catholic brother, James, to become King after Restoration. The Whigs opposed this because of his Catholicism and his absolutist tendencies.
In 1688, Parliament gave the crown to James II's Protestant daughter, Mary II, and her Protestant husband William III, as joint rulers rather than to James II's Catholic son. It was a bloodless and "glorious" transfer of power
English philosopher and author of Leviathan, in which he explained that a state of chaos and war existed prior to a social contract forming a government, which should be led by a sovereign invested with absolute power in exchange for protection of group safety and social order.
English philosopher and author of Two Treaties of Government, in which he argued that individuals have natural rights of life, political equality, and property that could not be violated by a political leader in a social contract. He believed governments existed only to protect these natural rights, and any government failing to do so should be overthrown.
English Bill of Rights
1689 document declaring Parliament would choose who ruled England, that the ruler could not tax without Parliamentary consent, that the ruler could not suspend Parliament, that the ruler was subject to all laws, that Parliament was to meet frequently, that MPs were guaranteed freedom of speech, and that cruel and unusual punishment was illegal.
King George II's chief minister until 1742 who worked for peace. He strengthened the role of Britain's cabinet and stabilized the political landscape, earning him the label as the first English "Prime Minister"
The French Palace outside of Paris. Represented the absolute power of Louis the XIV's monarchy
War of Spanish Succession
War fought by the European powers after the death of the last Hapsburg ruler of Spain, which left the throne open to Louis XIV's grandson. Ended with the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713.
Treaty of Utrecht
Ended the War of Spanish Succession in 1713, recognizing France' s Philip V as King of Spain, but prohibited the unification of the French and Spanish monarchies. England gained profitable lands in North America from France.
Peter the Great
Romanov ruler of Russia from 1682-1725. He brought Western European ideas to Russia, improved the Russian army, achieved control of the church, dominated the nobility, and transformed Russia into a major world power.
Catherine the Great
Romanov ruler of Russia from 1763-96 who supported enlightened additions to Russian culture and expanded Russia's borders to include control of the northern shores of the Black Sea, the Crimea, Polish land, and Alaska.
Chief minister to Henry IV's weak son, Louis XIII of France. He worked to establish absolute rule by weakening the nobles and Huguenots and employing intendants.
First Bourbon king of France, ruled 1589-1610, and converted to Catholicism from Calvinism to bring peace after the French Civil War. He passed the Edict of Nantes and was also assassinated in 1610.
Flemish scientist who pioneered the study of anatomy and provided detailed overviews of the human body through his dissections.
English physician who used lab experiments to study the circulation of blood and its flow through arteries and veins as well as the heart
French philosopher and mathematician. His Discourse on Method States that all assumptions had to be proven on the basis of known facts. "I think; therefore, I am." He stressed separation of mind and matter or logical reasoning
English scientist and author of works explaining the law of universal gravitation and means of measuring motion. His work inspired the notion of natural universal laws ordering and arranging life (mechanical view of the universe).
Italian scientist who invented the telescope. Discovered that not every heavenly body resolves around Earth. AFter he was put on house arrest he made discoveries in the areas of motion or physics.
Mathematician who used models, observations, and mathematics to prove the heliocentric theory developed by Copernicus.
The Polish scientist who abandoned the geocentric model (earth centered universe) and advocated the heliocentric theory (sun centered universe).
Monk and philosopher who advocated a system of experimentation in seeking truth rather than accepting without question traditional Church and ancient beliefs. This led to the development of the scientific method.
Economic philosophy of a "hands off" approach. Advocates that governments should not in any way interfere with business, as the marketplace provides an "invisible hand" to steer the economy. An early proponent was Adam Smith.
Age of Englightment
18th Century period of scientific and philosophical innovation in which people investigated human nature and sought to explain reality through rationalism.
Body of Enlightenment thinkers. MOst famous for writing Encyclopedia, a handbook for Enlightenment ideas, edited by Denis Diderot.
Philosopher who wrote Spirit of the Laws in 1748. He described the British model of divided branches of government with checks and balances as the ideal system.
Philosophe who wrote Candide, satirizine prejudice, oppressive government, and bigotry. Championed freedom of religion and thought.
Philosophe who published the Social Contract. He claimed that people were born good but were corrupted by education, laws, and society. Rousseau advocated a government based on popular sovereignty.
British feminist of the 18th century who argued for women's equality with men, even in voting.
Before the 1789 REvolution, "Old Regime" France was divided into three estate: First Estate Roman Catholic Clergy (1%) Second Estate: nobility (2%) Third estate: all of the rest. including bourgeoisie, city workers, rural peasants, and artisans (97%)
Ruler of France (1774-92) Married Marie Antoinette, and nearly bankrupted France by supporting the AMerican Revolution. Beheaded by the guillotine in January of 1793, on the orders of the National Convention.
Daughter of Maria Theresa and wife of Louis XVI. Became the most hated woman in France because of her ostentation and refusal to support reforms. Guillotined in October of 1793.
Tennis Court Oath
The 3rd Estate was locked out the Estates General meeting, they declared on May 5, 1789 on a Tennis court in Versailles that they would write a constitution before they would adjourn.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
National assembly proclamation that men are born free and equal before the law. Also granted freedom of religion, speech, and the press. Asserted that all men have a right to seek public office and have a air trial.
French clergyman and revolutionary, author of What is the Third Estate, which expressed the pains and complaints of the 3rd estate.
Girondins versus Jacobins
Both were political groups in the National Convention. Girondins were republicans who feared Parisian dominance. The Jacobins favored Parisian control
Reign of Terror
Direct by Jacobin Maximillian Robespierre to suppress opposition to the Revolution. Lasted from 1793-1794 and ended with Robespierre's execution by those fearing his fanatical policies.
One of Napoleon's most substantial achievements was the Civil COde of 1804, which centralized the disorganized body of French laws, safeguarded property rights, and upheld conservative attitudes toward women and labor.
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