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36 terms

Science Terms for Test

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mitosis
a process of cell reproduction that produces two identical daughter cells from the parent cell and is used four growth
meiosis
used for sexual reproduction, this process produces four sex cells
cell
a small microscopic part of the body that contains a nucleus and makes up the body
DNA
contains genetic material, found in the chromosomes and carries traits from life forms
Chromosome
part of the cell, carries DNA and genetic material
gene
usually occurs in pairs, a specific place on a chromosome
trait
a characteristic of a human ex. eye color, nose shape...
pedigree chart
tells known phenotypes for a family and past generations
punnett square
used to determine the chances of dominant vs. recessive genes
dominant
a trait, that is stronger than the other; like tall appears more frequently than short
recessive
the trait that doesn't appear as often in a genotype
homozygous
having two of the same genotype (TT or tt) either both dominant or both recessive
heterozygous
having one dominant and one recessive trait in the genotype (Tt)
genotype
the sign for dominant or recessive traits (TT), (Tt)
phenotype
the result of a genotype like (TT) then that person would be tall as a trait
adenine
a base on DNA, always pairs with thymine
thymine
a base on DNA always pairs with adenine
cytosine
a base on DNA, always pairs with cuanine
cuanine
a base on DNA, always pairs with cytosine
base pairs
adenine, thymine, cytosine, cuanine
homozygote
having both dominant or both recessive genes for traits
heterozytote
organisms that have one dominant and one recessive gene
down syndrome
three chromosomes are lined up when there should only be two, creating this syndrome
alelle
different forms of a gene
hemophilia
a genetic disorder which causes the blood to clot
sex chromosome
one of the 23 chromosome pairs, females are expressed with (XX) and males are expressed with (XY)
sex-linked
diseases that are only carried on the X or Y chromosome, making it linked with male or female
incomplete dominance
in sickle-cell anemia, AA' not exactily recessive or dominant
sickle-cell anemia
a genetic disease which causes blood cells to be shaped like a sickle
inherited trait
something that is passed from parent to offspring during sexual reproduction
environmental trait
a trait that is not inherited by a parent, like an accent based on the place you live, or if you dye your hair
natural selection
when organisms best adapt to the environment
mutation
when the gene/DNA does not meet up with another pair and then it is damaged in a way to alter the genetic message that was carried by the gene
genetics
determine traits
genetic counsleor
parents can talk to them and see what the risk is of their offspring getting a certian genetically inherited disease
heredity
the transfer of characteristics from parent to offspring (genes)