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a process of cell reproduction that produces two identical daughter cells from the parent cell and is used four growth


used for sexual reproduction, this process produces four sex cells


a small microscopic part of the body that contains a nucleus and makes up the body


contains genetic material, found in the chromosomes and carries traits from life forms


part of the cell, carries DNA and genetic material


usually occurs in pairs, a specific place on a chromosome


a characteristic of a human ex. eye color, nose shape...

pedigree chart

tells known phenotypes for a family and past generations

punnett square

used to determine the chances of dominant vs. recessive genes


a trait, that is stronger than the other; like tall appears more frequently than short


the trait that doesn't appear as often in a genotype


having two of the same genotype (TT or tt) either both dominant or both recessive


having one dominant and one recessive trait in the genotype (Tt)


the sign for dominant or recessive traits (TT), (Tt)


the result of a genotype like (TT) then that person would be tall as a trait


a base on DNA, always pairs with thymine


a base on DNA always pairs with adenine


a base on DNA, always pairs with cuanine


a base on DNA, always pairs with cytosine

base pairs

adenine, thymine, cytosine, cuanine


having both dominant or both recessive genes for traits


organisms that have one dominant and one recessive gene

down syndrome

three chromosomes are lined up when there should only be two, creating this syndrome


different forms of a gene


a genetic disorder which causes the blood to clot

sex chromosome

one of the 23 chromosome pairs, females are expressed with (XX) and males are expressed with (XY)


diseases that are only carried on the X or Y chromosome, making it linked with male or female

incomplete dominance

in sickle-cell anemia, AA' not exactily recessive or dominant

sickle-cell anemia

a genetic disease which causes blood cells to be shaped like a sickle

inherited trait

something that is passed from parent to offspring during sexual reproduction

environmental trait

a trait that is not inherited by a parent, like an accent based on the place you live, or if you dye your hair

natural selection

when organisms best adapt to the environment


when the gene/DNA does not meet up with another pair and then it is damaged in a way to alter the genetic message that was carried by the gene


determine traits

genetic counsleor

parents can talk to them and see what the risk is of their offspring getting a certian genetically inherited disease


the transfer of characteristics from parent to offspring (genes)

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