AP Gov Exam Vocab

527 group
Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 41
Terms in this set (41)
A policy aimed at helping those previously discriminated against to receive extra advantages and opportunities such as economic educational and political positions. The first presidential use came during LBJ's admin in 1965. Recent challenges have been based on the idea that affirmative action creates reverse discrimination against majority group citizens.
Back-bencherA nickname given to newer members of Congress who have few important positions or those more senior members who tend to avoid positions of power or controversy.Ballot initiativeA form of direct democracy that allows citizens to petition for issues that will be decided by a direct ballot and not by the legislative branch. This system is popular in California, where it reduced and reorganized taxes. However, at the same time, California has experienced major problems when such initiatives stop an agency from functioning or when opposing initiatives are passed in the same election.Beltway ("inside the beltway")A critical term referencing to the highway loop that surrounds the great Washington D.C area and seems to isolate the leaders of the country. If leaders concern themselves only with lobby groups and the hallways of power and are not concerned with the general interests of the nation at large. they are said to be thinking "inside the beltway"BicameralThe 2 chambers of Congree: The House of Reps and the SenateBillA proposed law being debated in Congress.BipartisanA label given if support for something comes from members of both partiesBlocA voting group that tends to include those with common interests and viewsBlock GrantsMonies given to communities and states for general programs, such as social services and development projectsBlue statesThe label given to states where the Democratic Party wins the electoral votesBriefA summary of case arguments given to the judges and justices before a hearing to outline the parameters of the caseBully PulpitThe idea, named for Teddy Roosevelt's use of the term bully, that presidents can gather national public support more easily than the numerous members of Congress. With this national support, Congress is pushed to follow the priorities of the president. Modern popularity polls seem to show that presidents with support of at least 60& of the public have a powerful forum for political pressure with Congress.concurrent opinona document drafted by court justices who voted with the majority to explain how they differ in their beliefs about the meaning of the majority vote"consent of the governed"describes a government that derives its power from the governed and does not force its power on the citizensconstituentvoters from the district or state that elected that leader. House members' constituents are from their districts. Senators' constituents are from their entire statecontinuous bodyThe senate is a continuous body in that only one-third of the Senate is up for reelection at a time. All of the House is up for reelection every other year and all seats could be changed. Therefore, the House is not continuous."Contract with America"A list and book used during the congressional elections of 1994 by conservatives led by Newt Gingrich. The effort was to define the basic goals of a new Republican majority if, and when, Republicans gained control of the House of Reps. The contract was a list of items that Republicans promised to bring into discussion, such as pushing for a balanced budget amendment, limited welfare programs, and other reforms.conventionA summer gathering where the parties elect their nominees, establish the party issue platforms, and approve the vice-pres nomineescooperative federalismthe act of federal and state governmental units working together to shape, fun, and enforce policydebt/public debtThe combined deficits of the federal government owed in the form of bonds sol to US citizens, foreign investors,countries, and parts of gov. The largest part of the debt of the US is currently held by governmental agencies. In mid-2009, the total debt came to about $11.4 trillionde facto segregationThe segregation and discrimination perpetuated by factions of society thru patterns of residence and economic conditions. The segregation is private and difficult to correct with legislation.deficitthe amount of money created and loaned to the federal government in a given year if it spends more than it collects revenuesdelegatesMembers of a political party selected by party caucuses, primary votes, or other party rules. The party nominee is the candidate who receives the majority of the delegates' votes at the conventiondemocracya form of gov where rule is established by all citizens thru votes. Usually, majority votes create policydevolutionThe late 20th century movement to reduce the influence of the federal government and other governments to return to a simpler form of governmental controlsdischargeA petition rule in the House that can allow some bills to be released from committee without committee approval.discretionary spendingthe programs that Congress can choose to fund. Even though spending to run the government and keeping up the military are seen as given needs, such funding is considered discretionary due to possible changes in the level of fundingdivided governmentone party controls the majority of one or both chambers of Congress, and the other party control the executive. It is a by-product of the separate election of presidents. Gridlock is also used to describe such a conditiondual federalismfederal and state governments are relatively equal and separate in areas of authorityearmarksthe official term used in congress for bills that contain pork legislationelastic clauseArticle 1, Section 8, Clause 18: Congress's power "To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper..." continues to be a basis of Congress adapting to the needs of the timeselectoral collegethe process by which electors are selected by states and are 'directed' by the popular vote to select the president