35 terms

10th Grade TAKS Science Vocab: Objective 4

"The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structures and properties of matter."
Composed of atoms of different substances that are chemically combined
A substance that can not be broken down into simpler substances
Combination of substances that do not combine chemically but do retain their individual properties
Physical properties
Characteristic of a material that can be observed without changing the identity of the material
Ability of a fluid to exert and upward force on an object immersed in the fluid
A ratio that compares the mass of an object to its volume
A material that flows and has no definite shape
A measure of the resistance of a liquid to flow.
Law of conservation of mass
State that mass is neither created nor destroyed
Balanced chemical equation
Reaction in which the number of atoms of each kind of element is equal of both sides
Physical change
Alters the properties of a substance, but not its chemical composition
Rock cycle
Continuous dynamic set of processes by which rocks are changed into other types of rock
Igneous rock
Rock formed from magma hardening (physical change)
Sedimentary rock
Rock formed from rock fragments being compacted (physical change)
Metamorphic rock
Rock formed when heat and pressure are applied to other rocks, these new rocks have new chemical composition (chemical change)
State of matter
Physical forms in which all matter naturally exists
Chemical change
Process involving one or more substances changing into new substances
The process of making food absorbable by breaking it down into simpler chemical compounds
Periodic group
A column of elements on the periodic table, these elements will have similar properties
Alkali metals
Elements in group 1A, very reactive, contain one valence electron
Noble Gases
Elements in group 8A, are not reactive, contain 8 valence electrons
Elements in group 7A, very reactive, contain 7 valence electrons
The loss of electrons from the atoms of a substance
The oxidation of iron
The maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a specific temperature and pressure
The substance that dissolves
Uniform mixture that may contain solids, lquids, or gases
The dissolving medium
Universal solvent
Water- due to its polarity and ability to dissolve many different solutes
Description of covalent solid in which electrons are shared unequally given the molecule charged parts
A substance that tastes sour, reacts with metals and turns blue litmus paper red
A substance that tastes bitter, feels slippery, and turns red litmus paper blue
The process by which gas such as water vapor changes to liquid such as water- how clouds are formed
Forms of water such as rain, snow, sleet, or hail that fall from clouds and reach the earth's surface
The process by which molecules at the surface of a liquid absorb enough energy to change to the gaseous state, such as water vapor