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35 terms

10th Grade TAKS Science Vocab: Objective 4

"The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structures and properties of matter."
STUDY
PLAY
Compound
Composed of atoms of different substances that are chemically combined
Element
A substance that can not be broken down into simpler substances
Mixture
Combination of substances that do not combine chemically but do retain their individual properties
Physical properties
Characteristic of a material that can be observed without changing the identity of the material
Buoyancy
Ability of a fluid to exert and upward force on an object immersed in the fluid
Density
A ratio that compares the mass of an object to its volume
Fluid
A material that flows and has no definite shape
Viscosity
A measure of the resistance of a liquid to flow.
Law of conservation of mass
State that mass is neither created nor destroyed
Balanced chemical equation
Reaction in which the number of atoms of each kind of element is equal of both sides
Physical change
Alters the properties of a substance, but not its chemical composition
Rock cycle
Continuous dynamic set of processes by which rocks are changed into other types of rock
Igneous rock
Rock formed from magma hardening (physical change)
Sedimentary rock
Rock formed from rock fragments being compacted (physical change)
Metamorphic rock
Rock formed when heat and pressure are applied to other rocks, these new rocks have new chemical composition (chemical change)
State of matter
Physical forms in which all matter naturally exists
Chemical change
Process involving one or more substances changing into new substances
Digestion
The process of making food absorbable by breaking it down into simpler chemical compounds
Periodic group
A column of elements on the periodic table, these elements will have similar properties
Alkali metals
Elements in group 1A, very reactive, contain one valence electron
Noble Gases
Elements in group 8A, are not reactive, contain 8 valence electrons
Halogens
Elements in group 7A, very reactive, contain 7 valence electrons
Oxidation
The loss of electrons from the atoms of a substance
Rusting
The oxidation of iron
Solubility
The maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a specific temperature and pressure
Solute
The substance that dissolves
Solution
Uniform mixture that may contain solids, lquids, or gases
Solvent
The dissolving medium
Universal solvent
Water- due to its polarity and ability to dissolve many different solutes
Polar
Description of covalent solid in which electrons are shared unequally given the molecule charged parts
Acid
A substance that tastes sour, reacts with metals and turns blue litmus paper red
Base
A substance that tastes bitter, feels slippery, and turns red litmus paper blue
Condensation
The process by which gas such as water vapor changes to liquid such as water- how clouds are formed
Precipitation
Forms of water such as rain, snow, sleet, or hail that fall from clouds and reach the earth's surface
Evaporation
The process by which molecules at the surface of a liquid absorb enough energy to change to the gaseous state, such as water vapor