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"The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structures and properties of matter."


Composed of atoms of different substances that are chemically combined


A substance that can not be broken down into simpler substances


Combination of substances that do not combine chemically but do retain their individual properties

Physical properties

Characteristic of a material that can be observed without changing the identity of the material


Ability of a fluid to exert and upward force on an object immersed in the fluid


A ratio that compares the mass of an object to its volume


A material that flows and has no definite shape


A measure of the resistance of a liquid to flow.

Law of conservation of mass

State that mass is neither created nor destroyed

Balanced chemical equation

Reaction in which the number of atoms of each kind of element is equal of both sides

Physical change

Alters the properties of a substance, but not its chemical composition

Rock cycle

Continuous dynamic set of processes by which rocks are changed into other types of rock

Igneous rock

Rock formed from magma hardening (physical change)

Sedimentary rock

Rock formed from rock fragments being compacted (physical change)

Metamorphic rock

Rock formed when heat and pressure are applied to other rocks, these new rocks have new chemical composition (chemical change)

State of matter

Physical forms in which all matter naturally exists

Chemical change

Process involving one or more substances changing into new substances


The process of making food absorbable by breaking it down into simpler chemical compounds

Periodic group

A column of elements on the periodic table, these elements will have similar properties

Alkali metals

Elements in group 1A, very reactive, contain one valence electron

Noble Gases

Elements in group 8A, are not reactive, contain 8 valence electrons


Elements in group 7A, very reactive, contain 7 valence electrons


The loss of electrons from the atoms of a substance


The oxidation of iron


The maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a specific temperature and pressure


The substance that dissolves


Uniform mixture that may contain solids, lquids, or gases


The dissolving medium

Universal solvent

Water- due to its polarity and ability to dissolve many different solutes


Description of covalent solid in which electrons are shared unequally given the molecule charged parts


A substance that tastes sour, reacts with metals and turns blue litmus paper red


A substance that tastes bitter, feels slippery, and turns red litmus paper blue


The process by which gas such as water vapor changes to liquid such as water- how clouds are formed


Forms of water such as rain, snow, sleet, or hail that fall from clouds and reach the earth's surface


The process by which molecules at the surface of a liquid absorb enough energy to change to the gaseous state, such as water vapor

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