Psych Terms

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Psychology
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Behavior
Anything an organism does--any action we can observe and record
Mental processes
Internal, subjective experiences we infer from behavior--sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts, beliefs, and feelings
Rene Descartes
17th century psychologist who agreed with Socrates, also introduced dualism
Francis Bacon and John Locke
argued for empiricism
Empiricism
The view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should rely on observation and experimentation
Willhelm Wundt
German professor who performed the first psychological experiment
Edward Bradford Titchener
Introduced structuralism
Structuralism
A school of psychological thought aiming to engage people in self-reflective introspection to discover their immediate sensations and feelings
William James
Introduced functionalism, wrote Principles of Psychology
Functionalism
A school of psychological thought which encouraged explorations of down-to-earth emotions, memories, will power, habits, and moment-to-moment streams of consciousness
John Watson and B.F. Skinner
Changed the definition of psychology to "the scientific study of observable behavior"--prominent behaviorists
Humanistic Psychology
Emphasized the importance of current environmental influences on our growth potential, and the importance of meeting our needs for love and acceptance
Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow
Pioneered humanistic psychology
Socrates and Plato
Believed that the mind was separate from the body, and that knowledge was innate
Aristotle
Disagreed with Socrates and Plato, thought that truth could be found through reason
Mary Calkins
Admitted to William James's graduate seminar, first female president of the APA
Margaret Floy Washburn
2nd female president of the APA, 1st female psychology P.h.D
G Stanley Hall
Created the first psychology research lab in the U.S. and introduced the concept of adolescence
Dorothea Dix
Believed that the mentally ill should not just be thrown in prison
Sigmund Freud
Believed that human nature is not always rational, and that we have subconscious motivations and conflicts
Psychodynamic thinking
The belief that people's minds are full of unfulfilled desires, which are socially unacceptable and therefore repressed
Gestalt Psychology
School of psychological thought which stated that perceptions are affected by context, and that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts: "How to behave in a particular situation is difficult until you see the various components of the task in its proper relationship"
Koffka, Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Kohler
Prominent Gestalt psychologists
Behaviorism
All behavior comes from training and reinforcement, introspection is dumb
Humanism
Reaction to behaviorism, thought that self-fulfillment and self-awareness override training, and that humans are generally good
Biological, psychological, social
Three levels of biophysical analysis
Neuroscience
How the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences
Evolutionary
How the natural selection of traits promotes the perpetuation of one's genes
Behavior genetics
How much our genes and our environment influence our individual differences
Cognitive
How we encode, process, store, and retrieve information
Social-cultural
How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures
Psychiatrists
Medical doctors licensed to prescribe drugs and treat physical causes of psychological disorders
Biological psychologists
Psychologists that explore the link between brain and mind
Developmental Psychologists
Psychologists that study our changing ability from womb to tomb
Cognitive Psychologists
Psychologists that experiment with how we perceive, think, and solve problems
Personality Psychologists
Psychologists that investigate our persistent traits
Social Psychologists
Psychologists that explore how we view and affect one another
Industrial/Organizational Psychologists
Psychologists that study and advise on behavior in the workplace
Counseling Psychologists
Psychologists that help people cope with challenges by recognizing their strengths and resources
Clinical Psychologists
Psychologists that assess and treat mental, emotional, and behavior disorders
Biological perspective
Perspective stating that thoughts and emotions have a biological basis
Evolutionary Perspective
Perspective emphasizing the impact of heredity and environment
Cognitive Perspective
Perspective emphasizing memory
Psychodynamic Perspective
Perspective emphasizing unconscious drives and conflicts
Behavioral Perspective
Perspective emphasizing, well, behavior
Socio-Cultural Perspective
Perspective emphasizing the impact of friends, peers, and family
Psychometric (Quantitative) Psychologist
Psychologist that designs methods and techniques for acquiring psychological knowledge
Hindsight bias
The "I knew it all along" phenomenon
Theories
Prove testable predictions, called hypotheses
Operational definition
A statement of the procedures used to define research variables
Replication
Repeating the essence of a research study to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
Case Study
An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
Survey
A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample
False consensus effect
The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors
Population
All the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study
Random sample
A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
Naturalistic observation
Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
Scientific Method
Form question, form hypothesis, test hypothesis, analyze results, draw conclusion, repeat
Target population
Group you want to collect data on
Stratified Sample
A representative sample obtained by analyzing demographics
Longitudinal Method
Studying one person or group throughout all stages of their treatment
Cross-sectional method
Studying many people at various stages of their treatment
Perfect Correlation Coefficient
-1 or 1
Correlation
A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other
Scatterplot
A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables
Illusory correlation
The perception of a relationship where none exists
Experiment
A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process
Double-blind procedure
An experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo
Placebo Effect
An experimental result caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent
Experimental condition
The condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable
Control condition
The condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
Random assignment
Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting difference between those assigned to the different groups
Measure of central tendency
A single score that represents a whole set of variables
Mode
the most frequently occurring scores in a distribution
Mean
The arithmetic average of a distribution
Median
The middle score in a distribution
Variation
How similar or diverse the scores are
Range
Gap between lowest and highest scores
Standard deviation
A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
Statistical significance
A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance; when the sample averages are reliable and the difference between them is relatively large
Culture
The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
Evolutionary psychologists
Psychologists that focus mainly on what makes us so much alike as humans
Evolutionary Psychology
The study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection
Mutations
Random errors in gene replication
Confounding Variables
Variables that affect the dependent variable, besides the independent variable
calculate mean, calculate deviation, square differences, add squares, divide sum by number of data points, take square root
Steps to calculate standard deviation
informed consent, protection from harm and discomfort, confidentiality, debrief
APA recommendations for ethical experimentation