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39 terms

Psychology Final - QUIZ QUESTIONS

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I am so happy that I wound up living in the freshman dorm I am in. As I look around campus, I can tell that the people in the other dorms are rather boring; however, there are a lot of very interesting and unique people in my dorm and we really know how to have a lot of fun together. I am engaging in ______?
out-group homogeneity.
Although he knew he was right, Paul changed his answer under pressure from the other three members on the panel. Paul's behavior demonstrates the power of _______?
conformity
I am trying to get my neighbor to sponsor my walk-a-thon. I initially asked her to give me $5 per mile, hoping that when she hears how large my goal is she will want to make at least a small contribution. I have used?
the door-in-the-face technique.
One of the key themes in Milgram's paradigm is the ___________ the psychological distance between the teacher/participant and the experimenter, the ________ is the obedience.
greater; less
I just passed by a young child who is on the street alone. The sight of her stopped me for a moment, but when I saw that the other cars passing by were not alarmed by the situation, I decided that I was probably overreacting and went on with my day. I have just engaged in
Pluralistic ignorance
A __________ is a conclusion regarding factual evidence, while a(n) ___________ is a belief that includes an emotional component.
belief; attitude
Dr. Horatio Williams became a better teacher and writer of psychology over the years as his knowledge base continued to grow. This is an example of
crystallized intelligence
In 1907, thirty-three states passed laws requiring sterilization of low-IQ individuals. The assumption behind mandatory sterilization was that IQ was ______________ influenced.
genetically
A number of studies provide ample reason to suspect that some, perhaps even most, of the sex difference in science and math ability is
environmental
Knowing not to ask your boss for a day off when she is in a bad mood demonstrates?
emotional intelligence
One important indicator of an IQ test's validity is its
capacity to predict future outcomes.
Scientists can study genetic influences on psychological characteristics in three major ways through
family, twin, and adoption studies.
How well we perform on a given mental task depends not only on our general intelligence, but also on our particular skills in a narrow domain. This factor that shows unique skills is called
convergent thinking.
Mozart and Bach used their _______________ intelligence in order to compose emotionally moving pieces of music.
creative
These two conditions are most commonly associated with mental retardation.
Fragile X and Down Syndrome
The approach to the study of personality that strives to identify the unique configuration of characteristics and life experiences within a person is termed
the idiographic approach.
Self-actualization is described as
our drive to develop our innate potential to the fullest possible extent.
Studies using the "Minnesota Twins" demonstrate that
shared environment plays little or no role in the development of adult personality traits.
Social learning theorists believe that one's behaviors are determined by
personality, environment, cognition
The ego is governed by the ________ principle, which delays gratification.
reality
The fact that divorce, religiosity, and attitudes toward the death penalty are more highly correlated in identical twins than they are in fraternal twins indicates that
specific genes may influence certain tendencies in personality that come to be expressed in certain ways based on how we learn to interact with the environment.
The newspaper horoscopes, astrologers, mind-readers, tarot-card readers, and psychics all provide highly generalized descriptions that can apply to just about everyone. If you accept this high-base rate description as accurate, you have fallen victim to the _______ effect.
Barnum
Gordon felt much better after releasing his emotions during his therapy session. His feeling of relief is better known as
catharsis
The psychic agency that is responsible for our sense of right and wrong is the
superego
One of the important criticisms of social learning theory is that
it places an importance on observational learning when research has shown the effects of shared environment to be weak.
The dramatic rise in the diagnosis of autism most likely stems from
a loosening in the diagnostic criteria set forth in the DSM-IV.
Jenny would take two hours showering every day, had an elaborate ritual for drying herself off, and had to apply baby oil with one finger and count to ten as she did so. Her condition is well-known as
OCD
The symptoms of schizophrenia, such as hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized speech, that cause distortions or excesses in normal events are referred to as _________________, whereas the decrease or loss of normal function, such as decreased emotions, speech, and motivation, is referred to as ___________________.
positive symptoms; negative symptoms
Ronald was the victim of an assault and has symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder as well as depression. The presence of two or more diagnoses is known as
comorbidity
Jeff cannot seem to relax. At home, he constantly thinks about things he has to do at work. At work, he constantly thinks about things he needs to do at home. He is worried about work, his family, his car, money. His condition is best explained as
GAD
Prozac, Zoloft, and Paxil belong to a class of drugs referred to as
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.
A therapeutic technique in which the therapist models encounters with a feared stimulus and then coaches the patient through the same encounter is referred to as
participant modeling
Marianne is easygoing. She eats well, exercises, doesn't drink or smoke, but more importantly, she doesn't let life's hassles impact her life. Her friends have never seen her angry or hostile. She fits _______ personality type.
Type B
People with depression are more likely to have experienced an event that involves
loss
Scott is a driven person who works late hours, is easily annoyed by mistakes, and is highly competitive. He fits _______ personality type.
Type D
The tendency for women to nurture others and use their support systems during times of stress was named ____________ by Taylor and her colleagues.
tend-and-befriend
The chemicals that we produce in response to stress that serve to activate our body's stress response systems are called
corticosteroids
Faced with the threat of a layoff in the next four weeks, Janet had to make an initial decision about how devastating this would be to her and her family. This is known as
primary appraisal
The tension, discomfort, and physical symptoms that arise when a situation strains a person's ability to cope effectively is referred to as
stress