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Waves and Water Dynamics
Chapter 8 Oceanography
Terms in this set (60)
What is the main disturbing factor towards waves?
Different densities: Air/ocean interface
Ocean waves (see)
Different densities: Air/air interface
Atmospheric waves (feel)
Different densities: Water/water interface
Internal waves (never see)
Associated with pycnocline, larger than surface waves, caused by tides, turbidity currents, winds, ships, possible hazard for submarines
Coastal landslides, calving icebergs
Seismic sea wave or tsunami
sea floor movement (earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, and storms)
Gravitational attraction among Moon, Sun, and Earth
Disturbance being transferred from one molecule to the next, waves transmit energy, cyclic motion of particles in ocean
Up and down, back and forth, around and around; usually in orbital paths
Waves travel without breaking, longitudinal, transverse, orbital
Orbital or interface waves
Waves on ocean surface, crest, trough, wave height (H), and wave length (L)
Particles (color) move back and forth in direction of energy transmission. These waves transmit energy through all states of matter
Particles (color) move back and forth at right angles to direction of energy transmission. These waves transmit energy only through solids.
Particles (color) move in orbital path. These waves transmit energy along interface between two fluids of different density (liquids and/or gases)
If wave steepness > 1/7
Wave period (T)
Time for one wavelength to pass fixed point
inverse of period or 1/T
Wave decreases when deeper?
1/2 (L) (wavelength)
Deep water waves
water depth is greater than wave base (>1/2L)
In deep water waves the wave speed (celerity) is?
proportional to wavelength
_____ wavelength so _____ speed?
water depth is <1/20L
In shallow-water waves celerity is?
proportional to depth of water
_____ depth so ______ speed?
Characteristics of both deep and shallow-water waves; celerity depends on both water depth and length
Capillary waves (ripples)
formed first (rounded crests, very small wavelengths)
Increasing energy (symmetrical waves with longer wavelengths
Increasing energy (crests pointed, troughs rounded, greater wave heights
Factors that control wave energy?
wind speed, wind duration, fetch
waves leaving area they were created
amount of time wind is blowing in the same direction
A single wave crest much higher than usual, caused by constructive interference.
Fully developed sea
maximum wave height, wavelength for particular fetch, speed, and duration of winds at equilibrium conditions
Wave energy - swell
uniform, symmetrical waves that travel outward from storm area, long crests, transport energy long distances
group of waves with similar characteristics
sorting waves by their wavelengths
Wave train speed is ..
1/2 speed of individual wave
in-phase wave trains with about the same wavelengths (become bigger)
Out-of-phase wave trains with about the same wavelengths (cancel out)
Two swells with different wavelengths and different wave lengths (mix)
rouge waves, super waves, freak waves
as wave velocity decreases, height increases
Effects of waves approach shore
deep-water swell waves shoal, transitional waves, shallow-water waves, wave speed/wavelength decrease, wave height/steepness increase, waves break, and period remains constant
Movement of Shoaling waves
Breakers in surf zone,Spilling breaker, plunging breaker, surging breaker, and wave refraction
Breakers in surf zone
Top of wave topples over base because of decrease in wave speed due to friction with sea floor, wave form not sustained, and different types of breakers associated with different slope of sea floor
Water slides down front slope of wave, gently sloping sea floor, and wave energy expended over longer distance
curling crest, moderately steep sea floor, wave energy expended over shorter distance, and best for board surfers
breakers on shore, steepest sea floor, energy spread over shortest distance, and best for body surfing
As waves approach shore, they bend so wave crests are nearly parallel to shore, wave speed proportional to depth of water (shallow-water wave), and different segments of wave crest travel at different speeds
Energy focused on headland =
Energy dissipated in bay =
Bay filled up with sediment
Waves and wave energy bounced back from barrier and can interfere with next incoming wave
Two waves with same wavelength moving in opposite directions
Tsunami or seismic sea wave
long wavelengths, shallow-water wave, and speed proportional to water depth so very fast in open ocean.
Most occur in Pacific Oceans and cause damage to coastal areas...
What forecasts possible tsunamis?
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