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integumentary system and body membranes

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membrane
a thin, sheetlike structure that covers and prtects the body surface, line body cavities, and cover the inner surfaces of hollow organs. ex (digestive, reproductive, and respiratory )
2 major types of body membranes
1.) Epithelial membrane 2.) connective tissue membrane
Epithelial membrane
composed of epithelial tissue and an undelying layer of specialized connective tissue
connective tissue membrane
composed exvlusively of various types of connective tissue; no epithelial cells are present in this type of membrane
3 types of epithelial tissue membrane in the body
1.) cutaneous membrane 2.) serous membrane 3.) mucous membrane
cutaneous membrane
the skin, primary organ of the integumentary system, one of the most important, one of the largest and most visible organ
serous membrane
composed of two distinct layers of tissue. 1st layer lines body cavities and the 2nd covers the organs in those cavities.
basement membrane
very thin, gluelike connective tissue that holds and supports the epithelial cells
parietal portion
lines the walls of a body cavity
visceral portion
covers the surface of organs found in the body cavities
pleura
a serous membrane in the thoracic cavity
peritoneum
serous membrances in the abdominal cavity
peritonitis
inflammation of the serous membrane in the abdominal cavity
mucous membranes
epithelial membranes that line body surfaces opening directly to the exterior. ex( lining the respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts.)
mucocutaneous junction
the transitional area that serves as a point of "fusion" where skin and mucous membranes meet
synovial membranes
lining the spaces between bones and joints that are classified as connective tissue membranes
synovial fluid
smooth and slick and secrete a think, colorless lubricating fluid
bursae
helps reduce friction between the opposing surfaces of bones in teh movable joints. Also known as small cushionlike sacs
epidermis
the outermost layer of the skin. Stratified squamous epithelium
dermis
the deeper of the two layers. Made up of large connective tissue.
subcutaneous tissue/ hypodermis
thick layer of loose connective tissuse and fat
statum germinativum
cells of the innermost layer
keratin
nature's most unique proteins. Tough, waterproof material that provides cells in the outer layer of the skin w/ a horny, abrasion- resistant, and protective quality.
stratum corneum
the though outer layer of the epidermis
pigment
substance the gives color to the skin
melanin
the brown pigment. precents the sunds harmful ultraviolet rays from penetrating the interior of the body
melanocytes
specialized cells in the pigment layer that produce melanin
cyanosis
the skin turns a bluish gray color
dermal-epidermal junction
exists between the thin epidermal layer of the skin above and the dermal layer below
dermal papillae
upper region of the dermis that forms part of the dermal-epidermal junction and forms the ridges and groves of fingerprints
follicles
specialized structures required for hair growth
lanugo
hair of a newborn infant. extemely fine and soft
hair papilla
small cap shaped cluster of cells and is located at the base of the follicle
arrector pili
tiny smooth involuntary muscle. Produces goosebumps
Meissner corpuscle
generally located close to the skin surface. Capable of dectecting sensations of light touch.
Pacini corpuscle
deep in the dermis. Capable of detecting pressure
nail body
visible part of the nail
root
rest of the nail
cuticle
lies in a groove and is hidden by a fold of skin
lunula
crescent shaped white area. "little moon"
sudoriferous gland
glands that secrete sweat. Also known as the sweat gland
2 groups of sweat glands
1.) eccrine 2.) apocrine
eccrine
the more numerous, important, and wide spread sweat glands in the body. They producetransparetn, watery liquid.. also known as sweat
apocrine
found primarily in the skin in the armpit and in the pigmented skin areas around the genitals
sebaceous gland
secrete oil for the hair and skin
sebum
secretion that lubricates the hair and skin
3 most common types of skin cancer
1.) squamouse 2.)basal 3.)malignant
Kaposi sarcoma
rare form of skin cancer frequently associated with AIDS and other immune deficiencies
squamous cell carcinoma
is a slow growing malignant tumor of the epidermis
Basal cell carcinoma
the mose common type fo skin cancer, usually appears on the upper face.
Melanoma
the most seriousform of skin caner.
most important functions of the skin
1.) protection 2.) temperature regulation 3.) sense organ activity
"rules of nines"
one of the most commonly used methods of determining the extent of a burn injury. Dividing the body into 11 areas of 9% each helps to estimate the amout of skin surface burned in an adult
1st degree burn
causes minor discomfort and some reddening of the skin. epidermis may peel in 1-3 days, no blistering occurs
2nd degree burn
involves the deep epidermal layers and always causes injury to the upper layer of the dermis. Damages sweat glands, hair follicles and sebaceous glands.
3rd degree burn
full-thinkness burn, characterized by complete destruction of the epidermis and dermis.Tissue death extends below the primary skin layers into the subcutaneous tissue.