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a thin, sheetlike structure that covers and prtects the body surface, line body cavities, and cover the inner surfaces of hollow organs. ex (digestive, reproductive, and respiratory )

2 major types of body membranes

1.) Epithelial membrane 2.) connective tissue membrane

Epithelial membrane

composed of epithelial tissue and an undelying layer of specialized connective tissue

connective tissue membrane

composed exvlusively of various types of connective tissue; no epithelial cells are present in this type of membrane

3 types of epithelial tissue membrane in the body

1.) cutaneous membrane 2.) serous membrane 3.) mucous membrane

cutaneous membrane

the skin, primary organ of the integumentary system, one of the most important, one of the largest and most visible organ

serous membrane

composed of two distinct layers of tissue. 1st layer lines body cavities and the 2nd covers the organs in those cavities.

basement membrane

very thin, gluelike connective tissue that holds and supports the epithelial cells

parietal portion

lines the walls of a body cavity

visceral portion

covers the surface of organs found in the body cavities


a serous membrane in the thoracic cavity


serous membrances in the abdominal cavity


inflammation of the serous membrane in the abdominal cavity

mucous membranes

epithelial membranes that line body surfaces opening directly to the exterior. ex( lining the respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts.)

mucocutaneous junction

the transitional area that serves as a point of "fusion" where skin and mucous membranes meet

synovial membranes

lining the spaces between bones and joints that are classified as connective tissue membranes

synovial fluid

smooth and slick and secrete a think, colorless lubricating fluid


helps reduce friction between the opposing surfaces of bones in teh movable joints. Also known as small cushionlike sacs


the outermost layer of the skin. Stratified squamous epithelium


the deeper of the two layers. Made up of large connective tissue.

subcutaneous tissue/ hypodermis

thick layer of loose connective tissuse and fat

statum germinativum

cells of the innermost layer


nature's most unique proteins. Tough, waterproof material that provides cells in the outer layer of the skin w/ a horny, abrasion- resistant, and protective quality.

stratum corneum

the though outer layer of the epidermis


substance the gives color to the skin


the brown pigment. precents the sunds harmful ultraviolet rays from penetrating the interior of the body


specialized cells in the pigment layer that produce melanin


the skin turns a bluish gray color

dermal-epidermal junction

exists between the thin epidermal layer of the skin above and the dermal layer below

dermal papillae

upper region of the dermis that forms part of the dermal-epidermal junction and forms the ridges and groves of fingerprints


specialized structures required for hair growth


hair of a newborn infant. extemely fine and soft

hair papilla

small cap shaped cluster of cells and is located at the base of the follicle

arrector pili

tiny smooth involuntary muscle. Produces goosebumps

Meissner corpuscle

generally located close to the skin surface. Capable of dectecting sensations of light touch.

Pacini corpuscle

deep in the dermis. Capable of detecting pressure

nail body

visible part of the nail


rest of the nail


lies in a groove and is hidden by a fold of skin


crescent shaped white area. "little moon"

sudoriferous gland

glands that secrete sweat. Also known as the sweat gland

2 groups of sweat glands

1.) eccrine 2.) apocrine


the more numerous, important, and wide spread sweat glands in the body. They producetransparetn, watery liquid.. also known as sweat


found primarily in the skin in the armpit and in the pigmented skin areas around the genitals

sebaceous gland

secrete oil for the hair and skin


secretion that lubricates the hair and skin

3 most common types of skin cancer

1.) squamouse 2.)basal 3.)malignant

Kaposi sarcoma

rare form of skin cancer frequently associated with AIDS and other immune deficiencies

squamous cell carcinoma

is a slow growing malignant tumor of the epidermis

Basal cell carcinoma

the mose common type fo skin cancer, usually appears on the upper face.


the most seriousform of skin caner.

most important functions of the skin

1.) protection 2.) temperature regulation 3.) sense organ activity

"rules of nines"

one of the most commonly used methods of determining the extent of a burn injury. Dividing the body into 11 areas of 9% each helps to estimate the amout of skin surface burned in an adult

1st degree burn

causes minor discomfort and some reddening of the skin. epidermis may peel in 1-3 days, no blistering occurs

2nd degree burn

involves the deep epidermal layers and always causes injury to the upper layer of the dermis. Damages sweat glands, hair follicles and sebaceous glands.

3rd degree burn

full-thinkness burn, characterized by complete destruction of the epidermis and dermis.Tissue death extends below the primary skin layers into the subcutaneous tissue.

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