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TCC Anatomy & Physiology BIO 141 Lab Practical 3 on the skull, nerves, and special senses.

What passes through the stylomastoid foramen?

Facial Nerve (Cranial Nerve VII)

Name and locate the paranasal sinuses

frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, paired maxillary bones

What are the functions of the paranasal sinuses?

To warm and humidify the inspired air; to lighten the skull; to enhance the resonance of the voice

Why is the sphenoid bone considered the keystone of the cranium?

It forms a wedge that articulates with all other cranial bones

Why are the maxillae considered to be the keystones of the facial bones

The maxillae articulate with all other facial bones except for the manidble

What ligament attaches to the external occipital crest?

ligamentum nuchae attaches here on the occipital lobe

With what do the occipital condyles articulate?

C1 or atlas or the first vertebrae of the vertebral column

In what way does a throat infection involve the mastoid and what makes this condition dangerous?

The mastoid is in a close proximity to the middle ear cavity which is close to infections in the throat. Only a thin bone separates the mastoid from the brain. A throat infection could spread from the throat to the middle ear to the mastoid cavity to the brain.

Name the 3 parts of the nasal septum

vomer, ethmoind, septal cartilage

Name the bones and processes that form the hard palate

The horizontal process of the palatine bone, and the palatine process of the maxillary bones

Name the bones and processes that form the zygomatic arch

The zygomatic process of the temporal bone and the temporal process of the zygomatic bone.

Name the 7 bones that contribute to the orbital cavity

maxillary, zygomatic, lacrimal, ethmoid, frontal, palatine, sphenoid (my zebra likes eating fried pastrami sandwiches)

Name the 14 facial bones

maxilla (x2), zygomatic (x2), inferior nasal concha (x2), nasal (x2), vomer, mandible, palatine (x2), lacrimal (x2)

Name the 8 cranial bones

frontal, parietal (x2), occipital, temporal (x2), ethmoid, sphenoid

Where are the auditory ossicles?

Embedded in the tympanic portion of the temporal bone (middle ear)

Where is the hyoid bone? What is its function? What is so unusual about this bone?

Inferior to skull, anterior to the vertebrae. "Floating"--doesn't articulate with any other bone directly. Movable base for the tongue; freer to move for swallowing & speech.

What is the function of the sella turcica?

It encases the pituitary gland.

What passes through the foramen magnum?

The inferior brain stem connects with the spinal cord.

What is TMJ syndrome?

Lock jaw

What is the function of the crista galli?

It secures the dura mater to the bone. (dura mater=outer covering of brain)

What passes through the hypoglossal canal?

Hypoglossal nerve (cranial nerve XII)

What passes through the internal auditory canal?

Facial nerve (VII) and Vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)

What passes through the foramen spinosum?

The middle menigeal artery (serving the internal face of some cranial bones)

What passes through the olfactory foramena?

Olfactory nerve (CN I)

What passes through the foramen ovale?

Trigeminal nerve (V)--the mandibular nerves

What passes through the superior orbital fissure?

Oculomotor Nerve (III), Trochlear nerve (IV), Abducens (VI)

What passes through the jugular foramen?

the internal jugular vein, Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), the Vagus nerve (X), and Accessory nerve (XI)

What passes through the foramen rotundum?

Trigeminal nerve (V)--maxillary nerve branch

What is the function of the coronoid process of the mandible?

It is the insertion point of the temporalis muscle for lowering the jaw during chewing

What passes through the optic canal?

The optic nerves (II) and opthalamic artery

What passes through the carotid canal?

Internal carotid artery

What passes through the inferior orbital fissure?

zygomatic nerve [branch off maxillary V2 of Trigeminal nerve V], and maxillary nerve [V2 branch of Trigeminal nerve V ], and blood vessels

What is the function of the styloid process of the temporal bone?

Attachment for tongue and neck muscles, and ligament for hyoid bone.

Cranial Nerve I


Cranial Nerve II


Cranial Nerve III


Cranial Nerve IV


Cranial Nerve V


Cranial Nerve VI


Cranial Nerve VII


Cranial Nerve VIII


Cranial Nerve IX


Cranial Nerve X


Cranial Nerve XI


Cranial Nerve XII



I. Sensory. Smell


II. Sensory. Vision


III. Motor. Moves inferior oblique, superior, inferior, and medial rectus eye muscles


IV. Motor. Moves the superior oblique eye muscles


V. Both. V1 opthalmic (superior orbital fissure). V2 Maxillary (foramen rotundum). V3 Mandibular (foramen ovale)


VI. Motor. Moves lateral rectus eye muscle.


VII. Both. Internal acoustic meatus, stylomastoid foramen.Chief motor nerves of face.


VIII. Sensory. Equilibrium and hearing


IX. Both. Tongue and pharynx. Taste. Baroreceptors in carotid artery.


X. Both. Visceral organs. Baroreceptors in aorta.

Accessory nerve

XI. Motor. Moves trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles


XII. Motor. Moves tongue for swallowing, eating and speech.

sympathetic chain ganglion


Cervical nerves


Thoracic nerves


Lumbar nerves


Sacral nerves


Coccygeal nerve

Cx or Co

Cervical plexus


Brachial plexus

C5-C8, T1

Lumbar plexus


Sacral Plexus

L4, L5, S1-S4

Lateral ventricle (1), Fourth ventricle (2), Third ventricle (3), Choroid plexus (4)

Lateral ventricle (1), Foramen of Monro or intraventricular foramen (2), Third ventricle (3), Fourth ventricle (4), Cerebral aquaduct (5)

Falx cerebri (1), tentorium cerebelli (2), crista galli (bone)(3), Coronal suture (4), Sagittal suture (5), helix (6), lobule (7), external acoustic meatus (8)

Olfactory bulb (1), Sella turcica (2), Parietal bone (3), frontal bone (4)

Cribiform plate (1, area), lesser wing of sphenoid (2), anterior cranial fossa (3), pituitary gland (4), internal acoustic meatus (5)

olfactory nerve (1), optic nerve (2), vestibulocochlear nerve (3), trigeminal nerve (4)

anterior median fissure (1), posterior median sulcus (2), white matter-- posterior funiculus (3), lateral funiculus (4), anterior funiculus (5)

Gray matter-- posterior horn (1), anterior horn (2), gray commissure (3), lateral horn (4); epidural space (5)

dorsal root ganglion (1), ventral root ganglion (2), subarchnoid space (3), ventral roots (4), dorsal roots (5)

corpus callosum (1), cingulate gyrus (2), pituitary gland (3), infundibulum (4), anterior commissure fibers (5), fornix (6), pons (7), superior colliculus (8), inferior colliculus (9), arbor vitae (10)

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