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What are the functions of the paranasal sinuses?
To warm and humidify the inspired air; to lighten the skull; to enhance the resonance of the voice
Why is the sphenoid bone considered the keystone of the cranium?
It forms a wedge that articulates with all other cranial bones
Why are the maxillae considered to be the keystones of the facial bones
The maxillae articulate with all other facial bones except for the manidble
What ligament attaches to the external occipital crest?
ligamentum nuchae attaches here on the occipital lobe
With what do the occipital condyles articulate?
C1 or atlas or the first vertebrae of the vertebral column
In what way does a throat infection involve the mastoid and what makes this condition dangerous?
The mastoid is in a close proximity to the middle ear cavity which is close to infections in the throat. Only a thin bone separates the mastoid from the brain. A throat infection could spread from the throat to the middle ear to the mastoid cavity to the brain.
Name the bones and processes that form the hard palate
The horizontal process of the palatine bone, and the palatine process of the maxillary bones
Name the bones and processes that form the zygomatic arch
The zygomatic process of the temporal bone and the temporal process of the zygomatic bone.
Name the 7 bones that contribute to the orbital cavity
maxillary, zygomatic, lacrimal, ethmoid, frontal, palatine, sphenoid (my zebra likes eating fried pastrami sandwiches)
Name the 14 facial bones
maxilla (x2), zygomatic (x2), inferior nasal concha (x2), nasal (x2), vomer, mandible, palatine (x2), lacrimal (x2)
Where are the auditory ossicles?
Embedded in the tympanic portion of the temporal bone (middle ear)
Where is the hyoid bone? What is its function? What is so unusual about this bone?
Inferior to skull, anterior to the vertebrae. "Floating"--doesn't articulate with any other bone directly. Movable base for the tongue; freer to move for swallowing & speech.
What is the function of the crista galli?
It secures the dura mater to the bone. (dura mater=outer covering of brain)
What passes through the internal auditory canal?
Facial nerve (VII) and Vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)
What passes through the foramen spinosum?
The middle menigeal artery (serving the internal face of some cranial bones)
What passes through the superior orbital fissure?
Oculomotor Nerve (III), Trochlear nerve (IV), Abducens (VI)
What passes through the jugular foramen?
the internal jugular vein, Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), the Vagus nerve (X), and Accessory nerve (XI)
What is the function of the coronoid process of the mandible?
It is the insertion point of the temporalis muscle for lowering the jaw during chewing
What passes through the inferior orbital fissure?
zygomatic nerve [branch off maxillary V2 of Trigeminal nerve V], and maxillary nerve [V2 branch of Trigeminal nerve V ], and blood vessels
What is the function of the styloid process of the temporal bone?
Attachment for tongue and neck muscles, and ligament for hyoid bone.
V. Both. V1 opthalmic (superior orbital fissure). V2 Maxillary (foramen rotundum). V3 Mandibular (foramen ovale)
Lateral ventricle (1), Foramen of Monro or intraventricular foramen (2), Third ventricle (3), Fourth ventricle (4), Cerebral aquaduct (5)
Falx cerebri (1), tentorium cerebelli (2), crista galli (bone)(3), Coronal suture (4), Sagittal suture (5), helix (6), lobule (7), external acoustic meatus (8)
Cribiform plate (1, area), lesser wing of sphenoid (2), anterior cranial fossa (3), pituitary gland (4), internal acoustic meatus (5)
anterior median fissure (1), posterior median sulcus (2), white matter-- posterior funiculus (3), lateral funiculus (4), anterior funiculus (5)
Gray matter-- posterior horn (1), anterior horn (2), gray commissure (3), lateral horn (4); epidural space (5)
dorsal root ganglion (1), ventral root ganglion (2), subarchnoid space (3), ventral roots (4), dorsal roots (5)
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