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Arts and Humanities
World History Patterns of Interaction Chapter 13
Terms in this set (133)
What was the first country to declare war on another country in World War I?
On what country did Austra declare war at the beginning of World War I?
Prior to World War I, how long had peace lasted?
Name two gradual developments that would help propel the continent to war.
unifies a country
In what way was Nationalism a good thing?
causes competition among nations
In what way was Nationalism a bad thing?
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Great Britian, Russia, Italy, France
Name the 6 great powers at the beginning of World War I.
1. competition for materials and markets
2. territorial disputes
Name two reasons why there was increasing rivalry between the countries before World War I.
Prior to World War I, name two places that the nations of Europe competed fiercely for colonies.
1. glorifying military power
2. preparing for mobilization
What are two aspects of of militarism?
No, pushed continent into war
Did the alliance system among the great Powers keep peace in Europe?
Militarism led to what dangerous development amongst the nations of Europe?
By 1914, all the Great Powers but this one had large standing armies.
Otto von Bismarck
Who was Prussia's blood-and-iron chancellor who used war to unify Germany?
After Germany, what country did von Bismarck see as the greatest theat to peace in Europe?
He thought France wanted revenge for defeat in the Franco-Prussian War
Why did von Bismarck believe that France was the greatest threat to peace in Europe?
isolate them (make sure they had no allies)
How did von bismarck plan to deal with France?
formed the Triple Alliance
What did von Bismarck do to isolate France?
What two countries made up the Dual alliance?
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
What three countries made up the Triple alliance?
Von Bismarck also tried to isolate France by signing a treaty with what country?
Kaiser Wilhelm II
Who forced Germany's von Bismarck to resign?
he was proud and stubborn
Why did Kaiser Wilhelm want to assert Germany's power and show the world how strong they had become?
it lapsed (expired & was not renewed)
What happed to Germany's treaty with Russia during Wilhelm's rule?
formed military alliance with France
What did Russia do after Wilhelm allowed their treaty with Germany to expire?
would be a two-front war on both east and west borders
Why would war with Russia & France be a special concern for Germany?
Which military group did Wilhelm build up to rival the British?
What tremendous program did Wilhelm establish to enhance Germany's Navy?
Which two countries did Great Britain form first an alliance with?
thery were alarmed by Germany's shipbuilding program
Why did Great Britian form an alliance with France?
What was the name of Britian's alliance with France & Russia?
No, only guaranteed that they would not fight against each other
As part of the Triple Entente, did Britain, France & Russia agree to go to war together?
Triple Alliance & Triple Entente
What were the two rival groups in Europe by 1907?
Where was a likely spot for trouble to occur in Europe during the early 1900s?
powder keg of Europe
What was the nick-name for the Balkan Peninsula?
many ethnic groups & clashes, history of nationalist uprisings
Why was the Balkan Peninsula a likely spot for trouble?
Ottoman Empire (Turks)
What group ruled the Balkan region at this time?
formed new nations
As Balkan groups fought and freed themselves from the Ottoman Turks, what did they do?
Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia
What were some of the new nations formed from the Balkan region? (5)
What was the primary ethnic make-up of the new nation Serbia?
wanted to include all Slavs on Balkan Peninsula
Why did Serbia want to expand its borders?
What Great Power country supported Serbia's desire to expand their borders?
they were both Slavic people
Why was Russia supportive of Serbia's desire to expand their borders?
Which country opposed Serbia's desire to expand their borders?
feared that Serbia creating a Slavic state would stir rebellion amongst Austria-Hungary's slavic portion of the population.
Why did Austria-Hungary oppose Serbia's desire to expand their borders?
Austria's take over of two Balkan nations
What event caused the first wide-spread friction in the Balkans region?
Bosnia & Herzegovina
Which two Balkan region nations did Austria annex?
What does annex mean?
they both had large Slavic populations
Why was Serbia outraged when Austria annexed Bosnia & Herzegovina?
Austia-Hungary on North
Ottoman Empire on South
The Balkan Peninsula was located between what two empires?
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Who became new heir to Astria-Hungarian throne at the time of Balkan unrest? (1914)
shot in Serbia
How did Ferdninand & his wife Sophie die and where did it take place?
assisinated Ferinand & his wife
Who was Gavrilo Princip?
The Black Hand
What secret society did Gevrile Princip belong to?
ridding Bosnia of Austrian rule
What was the goal of The Black Hand society?
issued a list of demands
What did Austria do to Serbia in response to the murders?
most of them, offered to have a few settled by an international conference
Did Serbia agree to Austria's demands in the ultimatum?
they did not want to fight the powerful nation
Why did Serbia agree to most of Austria's demands?
rejected it and declared war
How did Austria respond to Serbia's offer?
What country mobilized against Austria in response to their war declaration against Serbia?
F They urged them to negotiate
T or F, European leaders were not overly concerned about Russia & Austria.
F They urged them to negotiate
T or F: European leaders wer3e not overly concerned about Russia & Austria.
Which group did the Ottomans deport and kill by the thousands?
the Armenians pledged their support to the Austrians
Why did the Ottomans deport the Armenians?
nationalism, imperialism, militarism
What were the three forces at work in Europe that helped set the stage for war?
assignation of Austrian leader by Serbian
What single event set in motion the start of World War I?
Alliances followed through on their pledges to each other
Why did other countries in Europe get involved in Austria's war against Serbia?
Russia moved troops to the Austrian border, and also to what other border country?
because Russia had moved troops to their border
Why did German declare war on Russia?
What country did Russia look to when Germany declared war upon them?
Germany declared war on France even before they could mobilize
What did Germany do about France?
Great B ritain
Who then declared war on Germany?
Central Powers & Allies
What were the names for the two alliances fighting in World War I?
Joined later: Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire
Which countries made up the Central Powers (4)?
central location in the heart of Europe
Why were they called the Central Powers?
Great Britain, France, Russia
Joined later: Japan, Italy
Which countries made u[p the Allies? (4)
Which country switched sides from Central Power's Germany to the Allies?
thought Austria-Hungary had unjustly started war
Why did Italy say that it was switching sides?
T or F: At the beginning of World War I, most thought the war would be short.
British foreign minister
Who was Sir Edward Grey?...
he was convinced that the war would be long and bloody
What did Sir Edward Grey predict about the war?
the deadlocked region in northern France where long beginning of war was fought
What and where was the Western Front?
Germany's battle strategy: defeat France in west then rush east to fight Russia
What was the Schlieffen Plan?
Russia's railroad lagged behind and they would not be able to supply troops effectively
Why did Germany think they could beat Russia?
What was the name for the particular style of fighting in WWI where miles of ditches were dug and soldiers fought from them?
F very tiny land gains were made
T or F: Large land gains were made back and forth by both sides during WWI.
rats, mud, starvation, sleep deprivation
Why were the trenches so bad?
no man's land
What was the nickname for the space between the opposing countries' trenches?
from North Sea to the Swiss border
Where was the Western Front located?
poison gas, machine gun, tank, submarine
Name (4) new weapons of war that were used in WWI.
blindness, blisters, choking
What were some of the physical effects on those who were exposed to the poison gas?
new weapons such as machine guns could wipe out waves of attackers making it hard to advance
Why was it so difficult for the rivals to gain land advances in WWI?
F Only killed greater number of people
T or F: New weapons helped deliver a faster-moving war.
Battle of Somme
What was one of bloodiest battles of WWI?
How many soldiers were killed in the Battle of Somme?
Germans vs French, Britains vs Germans
Which (3) countries fought in the Battle of Somme & Verdun?
Germans, French, Britains
Which countries fought on the Western Front?
Germans, Austro-Hungarians, Russians, Serbs
Which countries fought on the Eastern Front?
German & Russian border
Where was the Eastern front?
Which front was more mobile?
Russia made gains into Austria
One country actually gained significant land from another country. Which two countries?
no Austria gained it back
Were Russia's land gains into Austria permanent?
Germany controlled the Baltic sea & had ubmarines in North sea
In addition to their own poor transportation system, what external factor limited Russia's access to food & supplies?
What was the one strong asset of the Russian army?
Allies: Japan, Australia, United States,
Central Powers: Ottoman Turks, Bulgaria
Name some countries outside of Europe that joined WWI. (5)
What was the name of the Allies plan to attack the Ottoman Dardanelles and take Constantinople?
secure the sea strait & establish a supply line to Russia
Why did the Allies care about securing Constantinople?
neither side won - it was another bloody stalemate
Did the Allies succeed in the Gallipoli campaign?
Besides Ottoman Constantinople, in what other area outside of Europe did fighting take place?
Germans vowed to sink any ship in waters around Britain without warning
What was unrestricted submarine warfare?
they hoped that service would lead to their independence
Why did British colonies such as India get involved in the war?
British passenger ship that Germans sunk - carried over 100 Americans
What was the Lusitania?
US protested & Germany temporarily stopped unrestricted submarine warfare
What was US President Woodrow Wilson's reaction to Lusitania?
Germans sunk 3 American boats in British waters, the Zimmerman note
What did the Germans do that drew US into the war and what was the "last straw" that caused US to declare war?
US intercepted a note from Arthur Zimmerman, German foreign secretary which asked Mexico to be an ally in return Germany agreed to help them reconquer land taken by US.
What was the Zimmerman note?
In what year did US declare war on Germany?
Which side did US join - Allies or Central Powers?
countries devoted all their resources to the war
What did "total war" mean?
governments told factories what to produce and how much - war supplies
How did total war affect commercial business?
unemployment mostly disappeared
What affect did the war have on employment in Europe?
What was it called when governments restricted the amount goods that people were allowed to buy?
What was the name for one-sided information provided by the government that was designed to persuade and keep up morale and support for the war?
worked in factories to build equipment & supplies, nurses, supplied food
How did women support the war effort?
made a truce with Germany
When he seized power, what did new Russian leader Vladimir Ilyich Lenin do regarding the war?
truce between Russia & Germany ending the war between them
What was the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk?
agreement to stop fighting
What is an armistice?
no, he stepped down - Germany became a republic & sent a representative to surrender
Did Kaiser Wilhelm surrender for Germany?
Which country stepped in and was instrumental in the final defeat of Germany?
Where did the final WWI battle take place?
in a railway car near Paris
Where did the armistice take place?
Germany & France
Which two countries was the armistice between?
How many soldiers died in WWI?
over 300 billion
What was cost of WWI?
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