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Melodic composition

unstable to stable

The melody should move from ____ tones.

four measures

usual length of a phrase, if it is concluded with a cadence

first phrase of a pair with a weaker cadence and the second with a stronger harmonic conclusion

antecedent-consequent relationship


antecedent-consequent group is called a ____

half, authentic

most common antecedent - consequent ending

begin identically or second phrase is a variation of the first phrase

parallel period

a parallel period, with second phrase exactly the same as the first

repeated parallel period

two phrases different from each other

contrasting period

there is no period (A-C relationship)

When two phrases both end with a strong cadence, _____.

group of four phrases where the only PAC appears at the end of the fourth phrase (first two phrases antecedent, second two form consequent)

double period

material added at the beginning of a phrase

introduction (phrase expansion)

material added at the end of a phrase

cadential extension

lengthening the phrases anywhere other than the beginning or the end

internal expansion

when one phrases ends and the next begins simultaneously with one note or chord functioning to overlap the phrases



short group of notes repeated throughout the melody


main musical idea, repeated throughout the composition


a motive associated with a person, idea, or emotion

literal repetition

repeating a melody in the same voice

repeating the original motive starting on a difference pitch (can be exact, maintaining the same intervals with chromatics, or inexact, diatonic repeated intervals)

melodic sequence

imitation of the melody performed upside-down from the original melody (moving in the opposite direction by the same diatonic interval e.g. move up by a third inversion -> move down by a third)


mirror inversion

inversion with the quality and quantity of the interval preserved

melody played backwards


repeating the original melody by at a different place in the beat measure

rhythmic displacement

lengthened rhythms


shortened rhythms


repeating the theme/motif in a different key


borrowing chords from the parallel key

mode mixture aka modal borrowing

notes that "don't belong" in a chord

non-chord tones

approached by skip in one direction and resolved stepwise in the other direction, weak

def of incomplete neighbor (aka cambiata), occurs in a ____ rhythmic position

two consecutive non-chord tones, first moves up by step from a chord tone, skips down to a NCT, then resolves to the original chord tone

neighboring group aka changing tone aka double-neighbor tone (looks like consecutive upper and lower neighbor without the chord tone in the middle)


type of incomplete neighbor that leaves by leap and resolves in the opposite direction by step, ACCENTED


type of incomplete neighbor that leaves chord tone by step then resolves in the opposite direction by leap


suspended note that resolves upward (suspensions usually resolve down)


chord-tone introduced just before the rest of the chord to which it belongs is sounded, "played early"


note in the preparation chord held over, creating momentary ACCENTED dissonance, resolved downward by step to the resolution


suspensions are named by the interval above the ____ for the dissonant tone and resolution

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