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Physiology, pH and buffers
Terms in this set (12)
concentration of hydrogen and hydroxide ions in a solution such as extracellular fluid or blood plasma
-pH is very low (acidic) provides an inhospitable environment for potential pathogens found in food
-also provides the environment which allows for the activation of pepsinogen (major protein digesting enzyme in stomach)
blood plasma pH
maintained from 7.35-7.45 (slightly alkaline) in order that the structure of hemoglobin be maintained in a functional configuration.
-if pH greater than 7.45 (alkalosis) hemoglobin does not properly release oxygen to tissues
-if the pH drops below 7.35 (acidosis) hemoglobin too readily releases oxygen and therefore does not transport it properly to tissues.
-lowering of pH w/in red blood corpuscles at the tissues is the most important factor which causes hemoglobin to release oxygen to tissues which need it
pH imbalances (acidosis alkalosis)
caused by respiratory or metabolic problems
result of to much CO2 in the blood caused by...
-airway obstruction, depression of the respiratory center in the brain, lung disease and drug overdose.
result of to little CO2 in the blood. caused by...
-high altitudes and hyperventilation brought about by fever or anxiety
-keto-acidosis (diabetes mellitus)
-ingestion of acids (salicylate or oil of wintergreen)
-too much alcohol (acetic acid production)
-diarrhea (loss of bicarbonate)
-strenuous exercise (lactic acid production)
result of alkali
-vomiting (loss of H)
-constipation (elevated bicarbonate levels)
what plays a profound role in maintaining pH with proper levels in the human body?
the kidneys play a profound role in maintaining pH levels w/in the blood plasma and thus w/in ECF.
-within kidney cells, hydrogen ions are produced as a result of the reaction of carbon dioxide and water which produces carbonic acid and which dissociates into hydrogen ions and bicarbonate.
what is the difference between a strong acid and weak acid
*A STRONG ACID when placed in water will almost fully ionize/dissociate straight away producing H+ ions from water
*A WEAK ACID will only partially dissociate into ions leaving a high percent of unreacted molecules in solution
what is the difference between a strong base and a weak base?
*A STRONG BASE fully dissociates to give ions in solutions.
*A WEAK BASE only partially dissociates and doesn't ionize fully= relatively low pH
what is the difference between respiratory acidosis/alkalosis and metabolic acidosis/alkalosis?
*respiratory acidosis= too much CO2 in the blood. caused by airway obstruction, depression of the repiratory center of the brain =, lung disease and drug overdose.
*respiratory alkalosis= too little CO2 in blood. caused by hyperventilation brought on by fever or anxiety, high altitudes
*metabolic acidosis= keto-acidosis (diabetes mellitus), ingestion of acid (too much alcohol, strenuous exercise, diarerriah
*metabolic alkalosis= alkali ingestions (antacids), vomiting and constipation
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