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Medical Gross Anatomy: Breast, Anterior Arm, & Axilla
Terms in this set (41)
modified sweat glands in the superficial fascia anterior to the pectoral muscles and the anterior thoracic wall. consists of ducts and associated secretory lobules.
ducts and associated secretory lobules converge in the breast to form 15-20 ______ which open independently onto the nipple.
a circular pigmented area of skin that surrounds the nipple
suspensory (Cooper's) ligaments of breast
a well-developed, connective tissue stroma surrounds the ducts and lobules of the mammary gland. in certain regions, this stroma condenses, forming well-defined ligaments, called ___, which are continuous with the dermis of the skin and support the breast.
dermis of the skin
suspensory ligaments of the breast are continuous with the...
In nonlactating women, the predominant component of the breasts is ____, whereas _____ is more abundant in lactating women.
a layer of loose connective tissue that separates the breast from the deep fascia and provides some degree of movement over underlying structures.
the base, or attached surface, of each breast extends vertically from ribs _____, and transversely from ___ to as far laterally as the midaxillary line.
anterior and lateral cutaneous branches of 2nd-6th intercostal nerves
innervation of the breast is via...
4th intercostal nerve
the nipple is innervated by the..
approx 75% of lymphatic drainage of the breast is via lymphatic vessels that drain laterally and superiorly into...
drain into the subclavian trunks
lobules of the breast
Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. Breast cancer develops in cells of the ___, _____, and _____.
lymphatics and veins
breast tumors spread via the ____ and ____ or by _____.
subcutaneous lymphatic obstruction and tumor growth pull on connective tissue ligaments, in the breast resulting in the appearance of an orange-peel texture on the surface of the breast.
cancer en cuirasse
further subcutaneous spread can induce a rare manifestation of breast cancer that produces a hard, woody texture to the skin
a continuous layer of deep fascia that encloses the subclavius and pectoralis minor and attaches to the clavicle above and to the floor of the axilla below.
the gateway to the upper limb, providing an area of transition btw the neck and the arm. formed by the clavicle, scapula, upper thoracic wall, humerus, and related muscles.
continuous superiorly with the neck, and the lateral part of the floor opens into the arm. oriented in the horizontal plane and is somewhat triangular in shape, with its apex directly laterally.
major vessels and nerves pass between the neck and the axilla by crossing ___ the lateral border of rib 1 and through the axillary inlet.
lateral margin of rib 1
The subclavian artery becomes the axillary artery as it crosses the ____ and enters the axilla.
At the axillary inlet, the axillary v. is ____ to the axillary artery, which in turn, is ___ to the trunks of the brachial plexus.
The ______ of the brachial plexus lies directly on rib 1 in the neck, as does the subclavian artery and vein.
a thick sheet of connective tissue that connects the clavicle to the floor of the axilla. it encloses the subclavis and pectoralis minor muscles and spans the gap between them.
the only major structure that passes directly through the medial wall and into the axilla; this nerve is the lateral cutaneous branch of the second intercostal n (anterior ramus of T2). it communicates with a branch of the brachial plexus (medial cutaneous nerve of the arm) in the axilla and supplies skin on the upper posteromedial side of the arm, which is part of the T2 dermatome.
medial cutaneous n of the arm
the intercostobrachial nerve communicates with the _____ of the brachial plexus in the axilla and supplies skin on the upper posteromedial side of the arm, which is part of T2 dermatome.
winging of the scapula
long thoracic nerve damage can cause this pathology ___ due to loss of function of the _____ muscle.
the lateral wall of the axilla is narrowed and formed entirely by this structure on the humerus.
which muscles attach to the intertubercular sulcus (at different points)?
supplies the walls of the axilla and related regions, and continues as the major blood supply to the more distal parts of the upper limb.
teres major muscle
The axillary artery passes through the axilla becoming the brachial artery at the inferior margin of the _____.
pectoralis minor muscle
The axillary artery is separated into 3 parts by the _____, which crosses anteriorly to teh vessel.
superior thoracic artery
1st branch of axillary artery contents
thoracoacromial artery lateral thoracic artery
2nd branch of axillary artery contents
anterior and posterior circumflex humeral aa
3rd branch of axillary artery contents
superior thoracic artery
small and originates from the anterior surface of the first part of the axillary artery.
it supplies upper regions of the medial and anterior axillary walls.
pectoral branch of thoracoacromial artery
lateral thoracic artery
arterial blood supply to breast
dorsal scapular (deep branch) artery
circumflex scapular a anastomoses with the suprascapular artery and this artery of the transverse cervical artery, thereby contributing to an anastomotic network of vessels around the scapula.
dorsal scapular (deep branch) of transverse cervical
circumflex scapular a anastomoses with the ______ artery and _______ artery, thereby contributing to an anastomotic network of vessels around the scapula.
a superficial vein that drains the posteromedial surface of the hand and forearm and penetrates the deep fascia in the middle of the arm.
a superficial vein that drains the lateral and posterior parts of the hand, forearm, and the arm. it passes into an inverted triangular cleft (
) btw the clavicle, deltoid, and pectoralis major.
an inverted triangular cleft btw the clavicle, deltoid, and pectoralis major.