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V.C.E. Physical Education_Unit 3_Area of Study 1
Questions based on Area of Study 1 - Monitoring and promotion of Physical Activity
Terms in this set (67)
measuring instrument for recording the number of steps taken in walking
a disposition to remain inactive or inert
subjective method of observation that involves asking ppl to describe their own thoughts, feelings or behavior
Motion sensors used to measure motion in either a single plane or multiple panes, with movement outside 'normal' human motion
objective measurement which involves watching people's behaviours with specific settings and recording activities and events of interest
Designed to assess physical activity of groups of people
Heart rate moitoring
HR monitoring records beats per minute (bpm) and has been widely used as an indirect measure of physical activity.
Sufficient physical activity
defined as 150 minutes of physical activity during the previous week
the mechanism through which the intervention (strategy) is believed to influence physical activity behaviour
Refers to one's belief about one's ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes. those with high levels for a particular task are more likely to succeed than those with low levels
A widely used individual approach to physical activity promotion provided by a practitioner, osteopath, physiotherapist, fitness instructor or psychologist
Enlisting social support
A counselling strategy aimed at getting individuals to find a partner to be active with
Allows a counsellor to prescribe a physical activity plan to meet the individual needs of each person
Essentially the same as 'progressive overload' which requires the gradual increase in workload
Subjective Measures of PA
Assessment of physical activity that relies on a person recalling which activites they participated in or their perception f how intense the activity of session was
Practicality vs accuracy
the more accurate a measure is the less practical it is
Cognitive models of change
Aim to change peoples awareness and thinking of physical activity and the risks and disadvantages of inactivity
Behavioural models of change
Aims at teaching people what they can practically put in place to change
At risk population groups
The groups within communities who are at most risk of physical inactivity (women, elderly adults, socially or economically disdvantaged people, people from non english speaking backgrounds)
associated with low levels of energy expenditure, sitting for long period s of time, not moving around
Number of participants vs cost
As participant numbers go up you must use a low cost option.
Dimensions of physical activity
Type, Frequency, Intensity, and Duration
Children's Leisure Activities Study Survey, Sujbective
involves 'ongoing systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of health data essential to the planning, implementation and evaluation of public health practice' (Boss et al. 2001)
more specific and directly linked to a particular intervention, such as a physical activity program.
Direct measure of PA
the number of trips per week a person makes walking or cycling to work
Indirect measure of PA
the number of people per week using a walking and/or cycling path
Ways of determining whether a PA program as worked
measure their physical activity prior to the introduction of the program (pre-intervention or baseline testing)
• repeat the assessment during the intervention or using identical measures at the conclusion of the program (post-test or post-intervention)
• repeat the assessment again some time later, such as 12 months after post-intervention. (This is known as follow-up.)
- determine the energy expenditure associated with that particular physical activity by assigning a metabolic equivalent (MET)
• To assess what proportion of physical activity is accumulated within the various domains of physical activity, such as household and gardening, active
transport, occupation or (for youth) school and leisure-time physical activity.
• To determine the most common activities performed by particular population subgroups, or within a specific context or setting.
Referes to the number of P.A. (bouts) in a give time frame. (eg per day, per week, per month)
Mets, Energy expenditure, max HR
efers to how long a person is engaged in physical activity.
National Physical Activity Guideline
Subjective measure of PA
Some assessments of physical activity rely on a person recalling or remembering which activities they participated in, or recalling their perception of the intensity of an activity session.
Self report or proxy measure
They include self-administered and interviewer-administered recalls through the use of interviews, questionnaires, diaries or logs. (Subjective measure)
Recall instruments require respondents to remember which physical activity they engaged in during the previous day, week, month or year. Recalls do not alter physical activity, and they vary in the way they are administered (self, telephone or interviewer). (Subjective Measure)
Active Australia Survey
is an example of an interviewer-administered recall survey that requires the respondent to recall their physical activity during the past week. This survey can be administered either over the telephone, in person or in written form, and is designed for use with adults.
Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ)
This questionnaire is a recall instrument designed to assess physical activity patterns. It was developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) for physical activity surveillance in all countries, especially developing countries.
Limitation of Subjective recall of PA
Social desirability bias occurs when people provide what they perceive to be the desired response rather than their actual response, and this may lead to over-reporting of physical activity.
Recalling behaviour is a complex task: children under the age of 10 years and some elderly people, in particular, are likely to have limited capacity to recall specifi c details.
Diaries and Logs
provide rich and detailed information about several dimensions of physical activity (type, frequency, intensity and duration) and require participants to document their physical activity level at the same time each day. (subjective measure)
Objective measures of physical activity
assessments using either direct observation or a device such as a pedometer or accelerometer
involves watching people's behaviours within specific settings (such as parks, schools or Physical Education classes) and recording activities and events of interest. (objective measure)
is low-cost, easy to use and considered to be the simplest form of motion sensor for physical activity assessment. (objective measure)
These devices are designed to register body motion, specifically acceleration (not speed) and deceleration during physical activities. (objective measure)
Most effective PA interventions target
changes in four levels. These levels are:
• individual (intrapersonal)
• social (interpersonal)
• physical environment
Individual Approaches to P.A. promotion
Print Media and Counselling
Population approached to PA promotion
Environmental strategies and tailoring, enviornment and policy targets for PA, Education programs, Policy, Mass media
Based on 4 levels of intervention that are interrelated. Individual, Social Environment, Physical Environment, Policy and organisational
Place where the PA intervention program is aimed. Work, school, community
Social-ecological models need to be tailor-made for each behaviour or health condition. They must also be tailored to the needs, attitudes, interests and behaviours of a specific population.
TAAG (trial of Activity for adolescent Girls)
Social-ecological model is based upon the assumption that girls' physical activity behaviour is influenced by the broader context of their social and physical environments.
Be active framework
The Strategic Inter-Governmental Forum on Physical Activity and Health (SIGPAH, body established in 1999 for coordination of a national approach) of the National Public Health Partnership (NPHP 2004) developed the....framework (National)
Examples of current and previous initiatives and projects that have been commissioned by the Australian
Healthy spaces and places
• Community and Schools Grants Program
• Learning from Successful Community Obesity Initiative
• Healthy Weight information and resources
• How do you measure up?
State Government in charge of PA promotion
Victorian Government departments (including the Department of Health, Department of Education and Early Childhood Development) in partnership with other organisations or NGO - Non government organisation, (such as Bicycle Victoria, VicHealth, Kinect Australia, Diabetes Australia, Cancer Council and universities) fund a broad range of health initiatives and educational programs designed to promote physical activity.
State Government example of PA programs
• Go for your life (promotes active living, walking, active recreation, sport)
• Kids - 'Go for your life' (school and community programs)
A review by Salmon et al. (2000) concluded that a settings-based approach (what does this mean?) has been the most popular strategy for promoting physical activity in Australia to date.
......play an essential role in providing a physical and social environment that supports children, their parents and the whole school community in enjoying an active life.
Settings can be broadly defined to include groups of people from the same suburb, town, city or country.
are an ideal setting in which to promote physical activity because the majority of the population works part-time or full-time for a significant proportion of their adult lives.
School Based Initiatives
The Walking School Bus Program pg 79
Kids - "go for your life' pg 80
10000 Steps pg 83
Find Thirty Every day
Programs across all 3 settings: School/Community/Workplace
Heart Foundation, Healthy Spaces and Places, and Vic Health
works closely with all levels of government and other health organisations, community groups and the media to promote heart health and implement policies and programs that improve the cardiovascular health of Australians.
Healthy Spaces and Places
a national guide to designing spaces and places for healthy living, is the result of a collaboration between the Heart Foundation, the Australian Local Government Association (ALGA) and the Planning Institute of Australia (PIA).
is a statutory authority which fosters change in the social, cultural and physical environments that influence the health of all Victorians.
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