classification

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Terms in this set (...)

Taxonomy
The science of describing, naming, and classifying organisms.
Dichotomous Key
An aide that is used to identify organisms and that consists of the answers to a series of questions.
Binomial Nomenclature
The scientific naming of species whereby each species receives a Latin or Latinized name of two parts, the first indicating the genus and the second being the species.
Domain
Any of three primary divisions of living systems, consisting of the eukaryotes, bacteria, and Archaea, that rank above a kingdom in taxonomic systems that are based on similarities of DNA sequences.
Kingdom
The highest taxonomic classification into which organisms are grouped based on fundamental similarities and common ancestry.
Phylum
A primary division of a kingdom ranking next above a class in sized.
Class
A taxonomic category ranking below a phylum or division and above an order.
Order
A taxonomic category of organisms ranking above a family and below a class
Family
A taxonomic category of related organisms ranking below an order and above a genus.
Genus
A taxonomic category ranking below a family and above a species and generally consisting of a group of species exhibiting similar characteristics.
Species
A fundamental category of taxonomic classification, ranking below a genus or subgenus and consisting of related organisms capable of interbreeding.
Archaea
A domain made up of various single-celled prokaryotes genetically distinct from bacteria, often thriving in extreme environmental conditions.
Eubacteria
Domain Bacteria; true bacteria, including most free-living and parasitic bacteria with simple cells, that are undifferentiated cells with rigid cell walls.
Protista
Kingdom of mostly unicellular eukaryotic organisms that are different from plants, animals, bacteria, and fungi.
Protozoa
Any of a large group of single-celled, usually microscopic, eukaryotic organisms, such as amoebas, ciliates, flagellates, and sporozoans.
Fungi
A kingdom made up of nongreen eukaryotic organisms that have no means of movement, reproduce by using spores, and get food by breaking down substances in their surroundings and absorbing the nutrients.
Plantae
Kingdom made up of complex, multicellular organisms that are usually green, have cell walls made up of cellulose, cannot move around, and use the sun's energy to make sugar via photosynthesis.
Animalia
Kingdom made up of complex, multicellular organisms that lack cell walls, can usually move around, and respond quickly to their environment.
Virus
A microscopic particle that gets inside a cell and often destroys the cell; as viruses are unable to replicate without a host cell, they are typically not considered living organisms.
Eukaryotes
An organism made up of cells that have a nucleus enclosed by a membrane; including protists, animals, plants, and fungi.
prokaryotes
A single-celled organism that does not have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles; examples archaea and bacteria
autotroph
Any organism capable of self-nourishing through the process of photosynthesis. They make their food auto-matic-ly.
heterotroph
An organism deriving its nutritional requirements from complex organic substance. They make their own food.
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