Matter and Change Vocab and Terms
Terms in this set (34)
What is chemistry?
The study of matter, changes, and energy changes
What is matter?
Anything that has mass (grams) and takes up space (volume; mL or L)
What is mass?
measure of the amount of matter (usually in grams)
What is an Element?
A pure substance made of one type of atom that can't be broken down into simpler, stable substances
What is an Atom?
The smallest unit of an element that maintains the chemical identity of that element ("the basic building block of matter")
What is a compound?
A material made from multiple atoms of two or more elements that are combined chemically
What is a molecule?
the smallest unit of an element or compound that retains the same properties of said element or compound
What is an extensive property? Give examples.
A property of a substance that depends on the amount of matter present (i.e. volume, mass, amount of energy in a substance)
What is an intensive property? Give examples.
A property of a substance that doesn't depend on the amount of matter present (i.e. melting point, boiling point, density, ability to conduct electricity)
What is a physical property?
A characteristic of a material that can be easily observed without changing the substances that make up the material
What are some examples of physical properties?
color, freezing point, malleability, magnetism, conducts electricity, conducts heat, density, boiling point, melting point, hardness, mass, state of matter, texture, odor, ductile, volume
What is a physical change?
A change in a substance's size, shape, or matter that doesn't involve a change in the identity of the substance (i.e. cutting, melting, etc.)
Is a change in state a physical change or chemical change? Describe the what and why of each state.
A change in state is a physical change of a substance from one state to another.
A solid state has definite volume and shape because the particles are in a relatively fixed position
A liquid state has definite volume but an indefinite shape because the particles are close together, but can move freely past each other, causing liquids to take the shape of their container
A gas state has indefinite volume and shape because the particles can move very quickly and are at great distances from each other, causing gasses to take the shape of any size container
Plasma is a high temperature state of matter where atoms lose most of their electrons
What are some examples of physical changes?
sharpening a pencil, inflating a balloon, melting copper, sublimation, grinding, dissolving salt, freezing water, boiling alcohol, evaporation of a puddle
What is a chemical property?
A characteristic that helps identify a substance by describing how the substance will undergo a chemical change (usually transforming into other substances)
What are some examples of chemical properties?
flammability, the ability to react with an acid, the ability to rust, ferments, reacts with another substance, (the ability to change from one substance to another)
What is a chemical change/chemical reaction?
A change of one or more substances in a material into different substance(s)
What are some examples of chemical changes?
rusting of iron, burning of wood, baking a cake, the appearance of heat or color when their was no heat or color before, cooking an egg
Describe the relationship between reactants and products.
Reactants react to produce products in a chemical reaction
What is the law of conservation of mass?
The law of conservation of mass states that mass in an isolated system is neither created nor destroyed by chemical reactions or physical transformations
What is energy?
Energy can manifest itself in heat or light, and it is always involved in physical and chemical changes
What is the law of conservation of energy?
This law states that energy can be neither created or destroyed during a reaction.
What is a pure substance?
A substance with a composition that is the same throughout and does not vary from sample to sample (i.e. Element or compound)
What is a mixture?
A blend of two or more kinds of matter that retain their own identity and properties because they are not bonded.
What is the difference between a mixture and a pure substance?
A mixture can be separated into two or more substances, while a pure substance cannot
What is a homogeneous mixture? What can they also be called?
A type of mixture in which all substances are uniformly mixed and spread out (AKA: solutions)
What are some examples of homogeneous mixtures?
tap water, air, and kool-aid
What is a heterogeneous mixture?
A type of mixture in which different materials are spread out unevenly
What is a colloid?
A heterogeneous mixture that does not separate
What is a suspension?
A heterogeneous mixture containing a liquid in which visible particles settle out
What are some examples of heterogeneous mixtures?
raisins and cereal, vegetable soup, salad, ice cubes floating on water, muddy water, and a snow globe
What is the main difference between homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures?
You can't see the particles in a homogeneous mixture, but a heterogeneous mixture has visible particles
see previous definition
see previous definition