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author of "Reflections on the Revolution in France" (1790) he attacked the principle of the rights of man and natural law as fundamentally dangerous to the social order and he emphasized the role of tradition as the basic underpinning for the rights of those in positions of authority. believed in the possibility of slow political change over the passage of time
the idea that all people's identities are defined by their connection with a nation and that it is to this nation that they owe their primary loyalty
Declaration of the Rights of Man
the document created by Lafayette that was a basic foundational document for liberalism
wrote "Essay on Population" where he argued that the population was growing at a rate that would eventually outstrip the food supply
this classical economist argued that the only way factory owners could find an advantage over their competitors was by offering lower wages, resulting in a steady downward spiral in their earnings
the beliefs espoused by Jeremy Bentham, suggesting that governments should seek to provide "the greatest happiness for the greatest number"
wrote "Principles of Political Economy" where he argued it may be necessary for the state to intervene and help workers achieve economic justice. most famous work was "On Liberty"
a phrase coined by Karl Marx, group that believed that expansive possibilities were available to mankind and that poor environments corrupted human nature, included people like Saint-Simon, Charles Fourier and Robert Owen
successor of Louis XVIII, felt more bitter about the French Revolution than his brother and introduced a Law of Sacrilege (any attack on the Church was punishable by death)
laws introduced in France by the Prince of Polignac taking away the right to vote from the upper bourgeoisie, imposed rigid censorship and dissolved the newly elected assembly
July Revolution of 1830
Parisian revolution that broke out concurrently with the July Ordinances, this sparked revolts throughout Europe, and ended with the crowning of Louis Phillipe and the creation of what became known as the bourgeois/July Monarchy
agreement led by Metternich that stated that the great European powers had the right to intervene in revolutionary situations
a romantic poet who went to Greece to aid the rebels in their struggle against the Ottomans
the question that asked what should be done regarding the increasing weakness of the Ottoman Empire?
Alexander I's successor, put down the "Decembrist" revolt brutally, ruled with an iron fist, stamping out any additional movements for reform in Russia
when a large crowd of people gathered in St. Peter's field in Manchester demanding fundamental political changes, including universal male suffrage and annual parliaments, soldiers fired shots into the crowd, giving this incident its name
Great Reform Bill of 1832
this bill expanded the electorate to include those who had become wealthy as a result of industrialization, reduced the number of sparsely populated electoral districts (rotten boroughs), showed that political reform was possible in Great Britain without having to resort to violence as in continental Europe
Poor Law of 1834
act of British Parliament that forced the poor to enter into workhouses where conditions were purposefully miserable to discourage people from seeking assistance
Factory Act of 1833
reduced the number of hours that CHILDREN could work in factories and established government inspectors to ensure adequate working conditions in Britain
eliminated in 1846, these laws had previously imposed high tariffs on imported grain to support domestic growers
Revolutions of 1848
a series of revolutions that broke out all across Europe that mostly failed. it occurred in areas such as France, Germany and Italy
Irish potato famine
huge famine that occurred in Ireland that significantly degraded conditions there, death of over 1 million people and emigration of another million from Ireland were the results
socialist journalist who led the radicals in 1848 to speak of the need for fundamental social and economic change, pressured the government to set up national workshops for the unemployed
following the termination of the national workshops established by Blanc, a violent class struggle erupted in Paris and strengthened the hands of the moderate republicans, who then established the French Second Republic
president of the French Second Republic and nephew of Emperor Napoleon I. after being elected, he assumed dictatorial powers and made himself Emperor Napoleon III
Frederick William IV
Prussian monarch who had promised to promote moderate reforms for many years but failed to do so, later when riots began he ordered the army to leave Berlin, leaving him undefended. he called for an election for a constituent assembly
an effort for German unification in 1848, it was hampered by inexperienced politicians and conflicting aims; while all wanted a unified German nation, major disagreements arose over whether it should be a monarchy or a republic
King of Prussia who rejected the Imperial throne offered to him by the Frankfurt Parliament, saying he didn't want a "crown picked up from the gutter"
a movement centered on the belief that the problems of the working class could be corrected by changes in the political organization of the country
People's Charter of 1838
a charter which contained 6 points: universal male suffrage, secret ballot, abolition of property requirements for members of Parliament, payment to members of Parliament, equal electoral districts, annual parliaments with yearly elections. only the point of annual meetings was not passed.
a gradual advancement of technology that saw rapid expansion in the second half of the 18th century, its key characteristics include the invention of the railroad, efficient energy sources etc.
the leading nation in the Industrial Revolution due to factors such as: political stability, religious toleration, expanding population, Agricultural Revolution, Enclosure Act, increase in capital and overseas trade, efficient transportation, readily available coal and iron resources
invented the flying shuttle, greatly increasing the speed at which weavers could make cloth
inventor of the water frame that marked the beginning of the displacement of domestic manufacturing by the factory system
iron and steam were the combination behind perhaps the most important invention of the nineteenth century Industrial Revolution
committee that exposed that children were being beaten in factories, resulting in the Factory Act (1833)
small associations within a given trade that provided funeral benefits and other services for their members
these organizations played a critical role in the steady improvement in wages and factory conditions
founder of scientific socialism, he argued that the feudal age was supplanted by the triumph of the bourgeois class and the development of capitalism led to the creation of a new class, the proletariat who would one day arise and supplant those capitalists who had exploited them
an enormous treaties on capitalism that explains the mechanics by which capitalists extract profit from labor, written by Marx
aided Marx in organizing a Communist League and co-authored the "Communist Manifesto"
one of the most influential political tracts in history, written by Engels and Marx
a group that was organized by Marx to "protect, advance and completely emancipate the working class"
the second communist group organized by Engels, it was a loose federation of the world's socialist parties heavily influenced by Marxism
war that was critical to the formation of centralized states in Italy and Germany; it had several causes: mainly being the fear among British and French that Ottoman weakness was encouraging Russian adventurism in the Balkans and the possibility that the Russians might gain access to the Mediterranean by occupying Istanbul
Concert of Europe
the main consequence of the Crimean War, which ended the concept that the big European powers should work together to keep the peace
Camillo di Cavour
chief minister to Victor Emmanuel, he was the true architect of the risorgimento, was a practical individual who primarily sought ways to enhance the power of the Sardinian state
a member of Mazzini's Young Italy movement, leader of the rebellions in Southern Italy, had a famous army of "red shirts" that conquered the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Prime Minister to William I of Prussia, this PM delivered a "blood and iron" speech and was a key player in unifying Germany
Seven Weeks War
a.k.a. the Austro-Prussian War, it ended shockingly quickly due to the modernization of the Prussian army
a telegram re-written by Bismarck, from the Prussian king to the French ambassador, Bismarck changed the information to make it seem like the king had insulted France, resulting in the war that Bismarck wanted with France
this new nation was formed by the efforts of Bismarck. it had significant effects on Europe. It created a new enemy of France, economic power of this nation led to rising tensions with Great Britain and helped set into motion the rush to build colonial empires,
an attack on the Catholic Church in which Bismarck insisted on controlling all church appointments and on gaining complete supervision over Catholic education, failed due to Catholic resentment of this policy
Third French Republic
the government that came into place after Louis Napoleon. Right after coming into power, it had to deal with putting down a revolt in Paris, which resulted in the rise of the Paris Commune. it managed to quell this and although it was marked by significant problems, it proved to be the most durable of all the French Republics
the radical government created out of the anarchy brought about by the Franco-Prussian War
Great Exhibition of 1851
an exhibit that showed the goods that came about as a result of industrialization and took place in Crystal Palace
one of the most remarkable men to have been PM in England, helped pass the Second Reform Bill (extended vote to urban heads of household). great rival was William Gladstone
Russian monarch who emancipated the serfs (though the formers serfs had to buy their freedom with payments that were to extend over fifty years
district assemblies that were mandated to deal with local issues such as education and social services, introduced by Alexander II
Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, led the Austrian-Hungarian empire, where each state was to be independent but have the same leader
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