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Edmund Burke

author of "Reflections on the Revolution in France" (1790) he attacked the principle of the rights of man and natural law as fundamentally dangerous to the social order and he emphasized the role of tradition as the basic underpinning for the rights of those in positions of authority. believed in the possibility of slow political change over the passage of time


the idea that all people's identities are defined by their connection with a nation and that it is to this nation that they owe their primary loyalty

Declaration of the Rights of Man

the document created by Lafayette that was a basic foundational document for liberalism

classical school

the most important early liberal economists collectively formed this group


the economic system that Adam Smith was critical of in his time

Thomas Malthus

wrote "Essay on Population" where he argued that the population was growing at a rate that would eventually outstrip the food supply

David Ricardo

this classical economist argued that the only way factory owners could find an advantage over their competitors was by offering lower wages, resulting in a steady downward spiral in their earnings


the beliefs espoused by Jeremy Bentham, suggesting that governments should seek to provide "the greatest happiness for the greatest number"

John Mill

wrote "Principles of Political Economy" where he argued it may be necessary for the state to intervene and help workers achieve economic justice. most famous work was "On Liberty"

Utopian Socialists

a phrase coined by Karl Marx, group that believed that expansive possibilities were available to mankind and that poor environments corrupted human nature, included people like Saint-Simon, Charles Fourier and Robert Owen

Charles X

successor of Louis XVIII, felt more bitter about the French Revolution than his brother and introduced a Law of Sacrilege (any attack on the Church was punishable by death)

July Ordinances

laws introduced in France by the Prince of Polignac taking away the right to vote from the upper bourgeoisie, imposed rigid censorship and dissolved the newly elected assembly

July Revolution of 1830

Parisian revolution that broke out concurrently with the July Ordinances, this sparked revolts throughout Europe, and ended with the crowning of Louis Phillipe and the creation of what became known as the bourgeois/July Monarchy


the name of the Spanish parliament

Troppau Protocol

agreement led by Metternich that stated that the great European powers had the right to intervene in revolutionary situations

Lord Byron

a romantic poet who went to Greece to aid the rebels in their struggle against the Ottomans

Eastern Question

the question that asked what should be done regarding the increasing weakness of the Ottoman Empire?

Nicholas I

Alexander I's successor, put down the "Decembrist" revolt brutally, ruled with an iron fist, stamping out any additional movements for reform in Russia

Peterloo Massacre

when a large crowd of people gathered in St. Peter's field in Manchester demanding fundamental political changes, including universal male suffrage and annual parliaments, soldiers fired shots into the crowd, giving this incident its name

Six Acts

act passed by British Parliament banning demonstrations and imposing censorship

Combination Acts

act that banned union activity which was repealed in Britain in 1824

Great Reform Bill of 1832

this bill expanded the electorate to include those who had become wealthy as a result of industrialization, reduced the number of sparsely populated electoral districts (rotten boroughs), showed that political reform was possible in Great Britain without having to resort to violence as in continental Europe

Poor Law of 1834

act of British Parliament that forced the poor to enter into workhouses where conditions were purposefully miserable to discourage people from seeking assistance

Factory Act of 1833

reduced the number of hours that CHILDREN could work in factories and established government inspectors to ensure adequate working conditions in Britain

Corn Laws

eliminated in 1846, these laws had previously imposed high tariffs on imported grain to support domestic growers

Revolutions of 1848

a series of revolutions that broke out all across Europe that mostly failed. it occurred in areas such as France, Germany and Italy

Irish potato famine

huge famine that occurred in Ireland that significantly degraded conditions there, death of over 1 million people and emigration of another million from Ireland were the results

Louis Blanc

socialist journalist who led the radicals in 1848 to speak of the need for fundamental social and economic change, pressured the government to set up national workshops for the unemployed

June Days

following the termination of the national workshops established by Blanc, a violent class struggle erupted in Paris and strengthened the hands of the moderate republicans, who then established the French Second Republic

Louis Napoleon

president of the French Second Republic and nephew of Emperor Napoleon I. after being elected, he assumed dictatorial powers and made himself Emperor Napoleon III

Frederick William IV

Prussian monarch who had promised to promote moderate reforms for many years but failed to do so, later when riots began he ordered the army to leave Berlin, leaving him undefended. he called for an election for a constituent assembly

Frankfurt Parliament

an effort for German unification in 1848, it was hampered by inexperienced politicians and conflicting aims; while all wanted a unified German nation, major disagreements arose over whether it should be a monarchy or a republic

William IV

King of Prussia who rejected the Imperial throne offered to him by the Frankfurt Parliament, saying he didn't want a "crown picked up from the gutter"


a movement centered on the belief that the problems of the working class could be corrected by changes in the political organization of the country

People's Charter of 1838

a charter which contained 6 points: universal male suffrage, secret ballot, abolition of property requirements for members of Parliament, payment to members of Parliament, equal electoral districts, annual parliaments with yearly elections. only the point of annual meetings was not passed.

Industrial Revolution

a gradual advancement of technology that saw rapid expansion in the second half of the 18th century, its key characteristics include the invention of the railroad, efficient energy sources etc.

Great Britain

the leading nation in the Industrial Revolution due to factors such as: political stability, religious toleration, expanding population, Agricultural Revolution, Enclosure Act, increase in capital and overseas trade, efficient transportation, readily available coal and iron resources

John Kay

invented the flying shuttle, greatly increasing the speed at which weavers could make cloth

James Hargreaves

created the spinning jenny, a machine that spun spindles at a rapid pace

Richard Arkwright

inventor of the water frame that marked the beginning of the displacement of domestic manufacturing by the factory system

James Watt

invented the first true steam engine which made factories independent of water sources

Abraham Darby

discovered a means of smelting iron using coal


iron and steam were the combination behind perhaps the most important invention of the nineteenth century Industrial Revolution


Prussia in 1834 created this customs union that abolished tariffs between German states

Sadler Committee

committee that exposed that children were being beaten in factories, resulting in the Factory Act (1833)


group of people that destroyed machines, which they blamed for their problems

cooperative societies

small associations within a given trade that provided funeral benefits and other services for their members


these organizations played a critical role in the steady improvement in wages and factory conditions

Karl Marx

founder of scientific socialism, he argued that the feudal age was supplanted by the triumph of the bourgeois class and the development of capitalism led to the creation of a new class, the proletariat who would one day arise and supplant those capitalists who had exploited them

Das Kapital

an enormous treaties on capitalism that explains the mechanics by which capitalists extract profit from labor, written by Marx

Friedrich Engels

aided Marx in organizing a Communist League and co-authored the "Communist Manifesto"

Communist Manifesto

one of the most influential political tracts in history, written by Engels and Marx

First International

a group that was organized by Marx to "protect, advance and completely emancipate the working class"

Second International

the second communist group organized by Engels, it was a loose federation of the world's socialist parties heavily influenced by Marxism

Crimean War

war that was critical to the formation of centralized states in Italy and Germany; it had several causes: mainly being the fear among British and French that Ottoman weakness was encouraging Russian adventurism in the Balkans and the possibility that the Russians might gain access to the Mediterranean by occupying Istanbul

Concert of Europe

the main consequence of the Crimean War, which ended the concept that the big European powers should work together to keep the peace


the Italian term for Italian reunification

Camillo di Cavour

chief minister to Victor Emmanuel, he was the true architect of the risorgimento, was a practical individual who primarily sought ways to enhance the power of the Sardinian state

Guiseppe Garibaldi

a member of Mazzini's Young Italy movement, leader of the rebellions in Southern Italy, had a famous army of "red shirts" that conquered the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

Victor Emmanuel

first king of unified Italy


Prime Minister to William I of Prussia, this PM delivered a "blood and iron" speech and was a key player in unifying Germany

Seven Weeks War

a.k.a. the Austro-Prussian War, it ended shockingly quickly due to the modernization of the Prussian army

Ems dispatch

a telegram re-written by Bismarck, from the Prussian king to the French ambassador, Bismarck changed the information to make it seem like the king had insulted France, resulting in the war that Bismarck wanted with France

William I

first emperor of a united Germany under the leadership of Prussia.


this new nation was formed by the efforts of Bismarck. it had significant effects on Europe. It created a new enemy of France, economic power of this nation led to rising tensions with Great Britain and helped set into motion the rush to build colonial empires,


an attack on the Catholic Church in which Bismarck insisted on controlling all church appointments and on gaining complete supervision over Catholic education, failed due to Catholic resentment of this policy

Third French Republic

the government that came into place after Louis Napoleon. Right after coming into power, it had to deal with putting down a revolt in Paris, which resulted in the rise of the Paris Commune. it managed to quell this and although it was marked by significant problems, it proved to be the most durable of all the French Republics

Paris Commune

the radical government created out of the anarchy brought about by the Franco-Prussian War

Great Exhibition of 1851

an exhibit that showed the goods that came about as a result of industrialization and took place in Crystal Palace

Benjamin Disraeli

one of the most remarkable men to have been PM in England, helped pass the Second Reform Bill (extended vote to urban heads of household). great rival was William Gladstone

Alexander II

Russian monarch who emancipated the serfs (though the formers serfs had to buy their freedom with payments that were to extend over fifty years


district assemblies that were mandated to deal with local issues such as education and social services, introduced by Alexander II

People's Will

revolutionary organization that succeeded in assassinating Alexander II in 1881

Francis Joseph

Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, led the Austrian-Hungarian empire, where each state was to be independent but have the same leader

Congress of Berlin

meeting after Ottoman's humiliating defeat against the Russians during which other European powers recognized the independence of Serbia, Montenegro, Romania, and Bulgaria (all former Ottoman territories)

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