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Key Concepts:

Terms in this set (224)

CHOP 2.1.1, Types of Ownership of an Architectural Practice
1. Sole Proprietorships
The most common architectural practice in Canada

2. Partnerships
Comprised of two or more partners. Most provincial associations impose restrictions on whom an architect may form a partnership with (see "Comparison of Provincial Requirements regarding Partnerships" in Chapter 1.1.5)

3. Corporations
A legal, collective entity authorized by statute to act as an individual business unit. Most provincial and territorial associations of architects have regulations which restrict the share ownership and the qualifications of directors of architectural corporations.

4. Partnership of Corporations
An architectural practice structured to preserve the individual identity of two or more corporations. For example, you can bring together complementary but differing interests and ownership - one corporation may focus on architectural services, while the other is a corporation providing support through drafting services.

5. Joint Ventures
Joint ventures are usually formed to create one architectural entity for the purpose of a single specific project. Frequently, a joint venture is set up to provide complementary services for a particular project - for example, a practice specializing in hospital work may need to team up with a firm located near the site of the project to provide contract administration services, especially field review. Joint venture projects may require special liability insurance, often on a single project basis, to protect the parties forming the joint venture. Architectural practices should clearly define, in writing, their share of the services and fees before entering into a joint venture.

6. Multi-Disciplinary Firms
Professional companies which include architects and other professionals, usually engineers but also urban planners, landscape architects, interior designers, etc. Any multi-disciplinary firm must comply with the requirements of the provincial associations of architects in order to practise architecture.
CHOP 2.3.2, Types of Construction Project Delivery

1. Stipulated Price Contract (Design-Bid-Build)
2. Construction Management
3. Design-Build
4. Public Private Partnership (P3)
5. Project Management

1. Stipulated Price Contract (Design-Bid-Build)
Most common/traditional method for large projects. The owner contracts with the architect and then with the contractor (two separate contracts). The architect administers and manages the contract between the owner and the contractor.

2. Construction Management
A broad term covering a variety of project delivery scenarios in which a construction manager (CM) is added to the building team at an early stage to oversee such elements as schedule, cost, construction method, or building technology. A CM may be:
• An architect
• A contractor
• An engineer or developer
• And individual or team with specialized training in construction management

3. Design-Build
The owner contracts with one firm to provide both design and construction. A Design-Build project usually has two phases:
• Phase 1: The Design-Builder provides architectural design services and throughout the design process, monitors costs to ensure the building remains within the owner's budget.
• Phase 2: The parties enter into a stipulated price contract for the completion of the building (also possible to have a cost plus contract instead).

4. Public Private Partnership
Generally used for infrastructure (civil engineering works) and larger scale public buildings. P3's occur when the private sector works with governments or other public agencies to bring private sector capital and/or expertise to provide and deliver public services. The scale of a P3 project usually is significant and may include financing, design, construction, and very often facilities management and operations.

5. Project Management
The main difference between Project Management and Construction Management is that the Project Manager (PM) has a contract with a client and in turn employs the architectural and engineering consultants to form his group, whereas under the Construction Management aspect the owner engages the architectural and engineering consultants, and at the same time or shortly afterwards, engages the services of a Construction Manager.

In this delivery method, the PM is usually hired by an owner during the pre-design phase to manage the entire project and engage all the disciplines required, including the architect and the consulting engineers.

One big disadvantage of this method is that it is not permitted by the regulations of most provincial associations of architects (including BC). Unless the architect can maintain a direct link with the owner, the owner's ability to control construction quality is reduced because efficiencies or cost reductions implemented by the PM that affect quality may not be discussed directly with the owner.