CHOP 2.3.3, Techniques There are various types of cost consultants and/or resources available to the architect to produce a reliable estimate if they do not have the expertise or resources to produce one in-house. Quantity Surveyors - provide professional service at hourly rates, or at a fixed or percentage fee of the construction budget. Construction Managers and other Development/Construction Experts - Other sources of expertise directly from the construction industry include construction managers, contractors, design-builders, and developers. Construction Price Index - data usually published by government agencies and private companies. These publications are useful only as a guide to show trends; usually some months out-of-date; often presented in graph form for ease of communication. Publications - available from government agencies, private interest groups, private companies, and quantity surveyors. The information comes in printed or electronic form, and the cost varies considerably depending on the amount of detail, completeness, and ease of use. Data from government agencies are more useful for identifying trends and differences in national, regional, and local costs than for calculating the cost of a specific building. Which of the following buildings require an architect in BC? 1. 1-storey movie theatre with a span of 8m and gross area of 200s.m. 2. Small, 100s.m. 2-classroom school 3. 2-storey, 400s.m. hospital with 10 beds 4. 3-storey, 550s.m. motel with 10 guest rooms 5. 4-storey, 500s.m. 5-unit townhouse 6. 1-storey, 450s.m. doughnut shop 7. 2-storey, 530s.m. warehouse, medium hazard 8. 1-storey 150s.m. biohazard facility 9. 2-storey, 590s.m. footprint, 6-unit townhouse 10. 3-storey, 1700s.m. gross (566 footprint) mansion CHOP 2.1.1, Types of Ownership of an Architectural Practice 1. Sole Proprietorships The most common architectural practice in Canada 2. Partnerships Comprised of two or more partners. Most provincial associations impose restrictions on whom an architect may form a partnership with (see "Comparison of Provincial Requirements regarding Partnerships" in Chapter 1.1.5) 3. Corporations A legal, collective entity authorized by statute to act as an individual business unit. Most provincial and territorial associations of architects have regulations which restrict the share ownership and the qualifications of directors of architectural corporations. 4. Partnership of Corporations An architectural practice structured to preserve the individual identity of two or more corporations. For example, you can bring together complementary but differing interests and ownership - one corporation may focus on architectural services, while the other is a corporation providing support through drafting services. 5. Joint Ventures Joint ventures are usually formed to create one architectural entity for the purpose of a single specific project. Frequently, a joint venture is set up to provide complementary services for a particular project - for example, a practice specializing in hospital work may need to team up with a firm located near the site of the project to provide contract administration services, especially field review. Joint venture projects may require special liability insurance, often on a single project basis, to protect the parties forming the joint venture. Architectural practices should clearly define, in writing, their share of the services and fees before entering into a joint venture. 6. Multi-Disciplinary Firms Professional companies which include architects and other professionals, usually engineers but also urban planners, landscape architects, interior designers, etc. Any multi-disciplinary firm must comply with the requirements of the provincial associations of architects in order to practise architecture. CHOP 2.1.10 - Definitions Construction Cost is the contract price(s) of all Project elements designed or specified by, or on behalf of, or as a result of, the coordination by the Architect, including cash allowances, building permit fees, changes, construction management fees or other fees for the coordination and procurement of construction services, and all applicable taxes, including the full amount of value-added taxes, whether recoverable or not. Where there is no contract price for all or part of the Project, the Construction Cost shall be the estimate of probable cost of construction as determined by the Architect, or as agreed by the Architect if a Cost Consultant is engaged, at market rates at the anticipated time of construction. Construction Cost excludes the following: • the compensation of the Architect and the Consultants, • other professional fees which are the responsibility of the Client, • the land cost, and land development charges. In the event that the Client furnishes labour or material below market cost, or recycled materials are used, the Construction Cost for purposes of establishing the Architect's and Consultants' fees includes the cost of all materials and labour necessary to complete the Work as if all materials had been new and as if all labour had been paid for at market prices at the time of construction or, in the event that the construction does not proceed, at existing market prices at the anticipated time of construction. Document Six, Definitions & CHOP 2.3.3, Definitions Construction Cost is the contract price(s) of all Project elements designed or specified by, or on behalf of, or as a result of, the coordination by the Architect, including cash allowances, building permit fees, changes, construction management fees or other fees for the coordination and procurement of construction services, and all applicable taxes, including the full amount of value-added taxes, whether recoverable or not. Construction Budget is the client's combined estimate of the construction cost, construction contingencies and GST or HST, or if there is no client's combined estimate, an amount agreed to by the client and the architect. In essence, this number is an estimate provided at the early stages of a project whereas the construction cost is better defined. Project Budget is the client's estimated total expenditure for the entire project. It includes, but is not limited to, the construction budget, professional fees, costs of land, rights of way, and all other costs to the client for the project. CHOP 2.3.2, Types of Construction Project Delivery 1. Stipulated Price Contract (Design-Bid-Build) 2. Construction Management 3. Design-Build 4. Public Private Partnership (P3) 5. Project Management 1. Stipulated Price Contract (Design-Bid-Build) Most common/traditional method for large projects. The owner contracts with the architect and then with the contractor (two separate contracts). The architect administers and manages the contract between the owner and the contractor. 2. Construction Management A broad term covering a variety of project delivery scenarios in which a construction manager (CM) is added to the building team at an early stage to oversee such elements as schedule, cost, construction method, or building technology. A CM may be: • An architect • A contractor • An engineer or developer • And individual or team with specialized training in construction management 3. Design-Build The owner contracts with one firm to provide both design and construction. A Design-Build project usually has two phases: • Phase 1: The Design-Builder provides architectural design services and throughout the design process, monitors costs to ensure the building remains within the owner's budget. • Phase 2: The parties enter into a stipulated price contract for the completion of the building (also possible to have a cost plus contract instead). 4. Public Private Partnership Generally used for infrastructure (civil engineering works) and larger scale public buildings. P3's occur when the private sector works with governments or other public agencies to bring private sector capital and/or expertise to provide and deliver public services. The scale of a P3 project usually is significant and may include financing, design, construction, and very often facilities management and operations. 5. Project Management The main difference between Project Management and Construction Management is that the Project Manager (PM) has a contract with a client and in turn employs the architectural and engineering consultants to form his group, whereas under the Construction Management aspect the owner engages the architectural and engineering consultants, and at the same time or shortly afterwards, engages the services of a Construction Manager. In this delivery method, the PM is usually hired by an owner during the pre-design phase to manage the entire project and engage all the disciplines required, including the architect and the consulting engineers. One big disadvantage of this method is that it is not permitted by the regulations of most provincial associations of architects (including BC). Unless the architect can maintain a direct link with the owner, the owner's ability to control construction quality is reduced because efficiencies or cost reductions implemented by the PM that affect quality may not be discussed directly with the owner. Guide to Document Nine, Background Document Nine is meant for use with consultants who are design professionals, particularly the traditional engineering consultants on a building project - structural, mechanical, and electrical engineers, but may also include civil engineers, acoustic engineers, and other design professionals, such as other architects, landscape architects, and registered interior designers. Document Nine is not intended for consultants who may have a very limited role; who may not carry professional liability insurance; and who may not be design professionals; including, but not limited to, specification writers, project managers, programmers, CAD technologists, theatre experts, health care specialists, model makers, renderers, etc. In the Construction Documents phase, which of the following services are considered basic, which are additional? 1. coordinate services of consultants as applicable, 2. construction documents consisting of drawings and specifications; 3. Application for Building Permit; 4. Building Code Equivalencies 5. advise the client of any adjustments to the statement of probable Construction Cost, including adjustments indicated by changes in requirements and general market conditions; 6. obtain instructions from and advise the client on the preparation of the necessary bidding information, bidding forms, conditions of the contract and the form of contract between the client and the contractor; 7. review statutes, regulations, codes and by laws applicable to the design and where necessary review the same with the authorities having jurisdiction in order that the client may apply for and obtain the consents, approvals, licences and permits necessary for the Project; 8. in British Columbia, provide and coordinate letters of assurance as applicable; and 9. review and obtain client approval before proceeding to next phase. CHOP 2.3.8, SectionFormat The Three Part SectionFormat's primary purpose is to provide a uniform approach for organizing articles and paragraphs within the project specification sections to produce a consistent appearance and completeness. The architect should use both the MasterFormat system in combination with the Three Part SectionFormat as a guide in writing specifications sections for every project except for simple outline specifications or minor projects. The three parts of the SectionFormat are: Part 1, General: This part covers those subjects which: • Relate to the work in general; • Provide a general description of the system, where applicable; • Identify references to standards; • Define the administrative and technical requirements specific to a particular section. Part 2, Products: This part defines the acceptable equipment, materials, fixtures, mixes, and fabrications, that is, "product" items to be incorporated into the work. Part 3, Execution: This part describes the manner in which items covered by Part 2 are to be incorporated into the work.