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Clara Barton

Nurse during the Civil War; started the American Red Cross

Lincoln's Inauguration Speech

1) No interference of existing slavery
2) No spread of slavery
3) "War will be from secession, not slavery"


the reorganization and rebuilding of the former Confederate states after the Civil War

Abigail Adams

John Adam's wife, she appealed to her husband to protect the rights of women

James Armistead

African American, spy for General Lafayette. Posed as an escaped slave, acted as orderly and guide to the British Army.

John James Audubon

Famous naturalist and artist whose work helped science catalogue his drawings so that they could better understand the animals that he drew.

Philip Bazaar

born in Chile was the first Hispanic-American to be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor in the assault of Fort Fisher.

Wentworth Cheswell

grandson of a freed slave, 1st African American in the U.S to be elected into public office (constable), signed document that pledged to take up arms against British, fought in the Revolutionary War

Bernardo de Galvez

Governor of Spanish Louisiana, favored the Patriots, secretly supplied goods to Americans-southwestern frontier

Stonewall Jackson

Brave commander of the Confederate Army that led troops at Bull Run. He died in the confusion at the Battle of Chancellorsville.

John Paul Jones

"i have not yet begun to fight"

John Locke

This English philosophe argued that all men were born with natural rights and that a government's purpose was to protect these rights

Haym Salomon

American financier and Revolutionary patriot who helped fund the army during the American Revolution (1740?-1785)

Mercy Otis Warren

New England woman who wrote many works. These included a history of the revolution, a play, and poems One of America's first writers.

Henry David Thoreau

American transcendentalist who was against a government that supported slavery. He wrote down his beliefs in Walden. He started the movement of civil-disobedience when he refused to pay the toll-tax to support him Mexican War.

Reasons for Exploration

gold- Europeans sought out a route to Asia to obtain silks, spices, and other goods to sell back in Europe. god- Europeans felt whatever land they found they would convert the native people to Christianity which would reward them in heaven. glory- whomever found a new route to Asia or new land would be famous forever. gadget- new inventions allowed explorers to navigate across wide oceans; new weapons would give explorers military strength

Cash Crop

farm crop grown to be sold or traded rather than used by the farm family


refuse to buy


German soldiers hired by George III to smash Colonial rebellion, proved good in mechanical sense but they were more concerned about money than duty.


Washington, Adams, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, Quincy Adams, Jackson

William Lloyd Garrison

White Abolitionist - Early 1800s - published The Liberator

Lucretia Mott

Quaker activist in both the abolitionist and women's movements; with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, she was a principal organizer of the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848.

Harriet Beecher Stowe

Wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin, a book about a slave who is treated badly, in 1852. The book persuaded more people, particularly Northerners, to become anti-slavery.

Lyman Beecher

Presbyterian clergyman, temperance movement leader and a leader of the Second Great Awakening of the United States.

Dorthea Dix

dedicated to improving conditions for the mentally ill. led movement to build new mental hospitals and improve existing ones

Horace Mann

United States educator who introduced reforms that significantly altered the system of public education (1796-1859)

Nat Turner

Leader of a slave rebellion in 1831 in Virginia. Revolt led to the deaths of 20 whites and 40 blacks and led to the "gag rule' outlawing any discussion of slavery in the House of Representatives

John Brown

abolitionist who was hanged after leading an unsuccessful raid at Harper's Ferry, Virginia (1800-1858)

Lincoln/Douglass Debates

Seven debates between Lincoln and Douglass before election of 1860 - mostly over issues of slavery

William Carney

first African American to be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for his Acts of bravery on the Assault of Fort Wagner.

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