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Industrialization and Development
Terms in this set (30)
an initial amount of spending (usually by the government) leads to an increased amount of spending (snowballing)
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
A trade agreement between Canada, the United States and Mexico that encourages free trade between these North American countries.
A decision by a corporation to turn over much of the responsibility for production to independent suppliers (often based in foreign countries with cheaper labor).
just in time delivery
method of inventory management made possible by efficent transportation and communication system, whereby companies keep on hand what they need for near term production, planning that what they need for longer term production will arrive when needed
Specialized Economic Zones
specific area within a country that has tax incentives & less stringent environmental regulations - implemented to attract foreign business and investment
Principle that maintains that the correct location of a production facility is where the net profit is the greatest. Therefore in industry, there is a tendency to substitute one factor of production (e.g., labor) for another (e.g., capital for automated equipment) in order to achieve optimum plant location.
The deliberate killing of a place through industrial expansion and change, so that its earlier landscape and character are destroyed.
transnational corporation (TNC)
A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located.
present or existing everywhere
Costs that change directly with the amount of production (e.g. energy supply and labor costs).
least cost theory
Model developed by Alfred Weber according to which the location of manufacturing establishments is determined by the minimization of three critical expenses: labor, transportation, and agglomeration.
bulk gaining industry
An industry in which the final product weighs more or compromises a greater volume than the inputs
bulk reducing industry
An industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume than the inputs.
economic and social region which includes the lands surrounding the Pacific Ocean, especially those in Asia
The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism.
largest lowland of Japan, dominant region of industrialization, including Tokyo metropolitan area
one of the earliest regions to industrialize in China, still a major industrial region
dozen or so individuals who took advantage of the rapid privatization of Japanese property to amass huge personal fortunes thus controlling most of Japan's medias, banks, and raw-material companies.
Increasing number of workers find employment in the provision of services rather than the extraction of raw materials and the manufacture of goods.
The amount of a resource available in discovered deposits (esp. fossil fuels)
The amount of energy in fossil fuel deposit not yet identified but thought to exist.
the quantity of goods and services produced from each unit of labor input
right to work laws
a state law forbidding requirements that workers must join a union to hold their jobs; they were specifically permitted by the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947
single market manufacturers
manufacturers that produce goods for one type of market or one market location
Location factors related to the costs of factors of production inside the plant, such as land, labor, and capital
Location factors related to the transportation of materials into and from a factory.
A group of neighboring countries that promote trade with each other and erect barriers to limit trade with other blocs
value added productivity
The gross value of the product minus the costs of raw materials and energy.
variable revenue analysis
An approach to industrial location theory concerned with spatial variations in revenue (sales). It concentrates on the demand side of the industrial location problem (where customers are), as opposed to the cost side addressed in variable cost analysis.
Scot who invented the condenser and other improvements that made the steam engine a practical source of power for industry and transportation.
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