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AP US History Chapter 11: Society, Culture, and Reform 1820-1860

Created by Matthew Piccolella
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Antebellum Period
the period before the Civil War, diverse group of reformers committed themselves to causes like public schools, treatment of mentally ill, controlling sale of alcohol, equal right to women, abolishing slavery
Sources of Reform
Puritan sense of mission, Enlightenment belief in human goodness and perfectibility, politics of Jacksonian democracy, changing relationships among men and women
Rationalism
belief in human reason, religious idea that had been prominent during Enlightenment and Revolution
Calvinism
teachings of original sin and predestination, had been rejected by more liberal doctrines
Second Great Awakening
began among educated people like Timothy Dwight, changed to center around the audience, easily understood by the uneducated, offered opportunity of salvation for all, caused new divisions in society, affected all sections of the country, only Mass to Ohio did it play a large role
Reverend Timothy Dwight
president of Yale College, led campus revivals that motivated many young men to become evangelical preachers
Charles G. Finney
started a series of revivals in upstate New York, appealed to people's emotions and fear of damnation and persuaded thousands to publicly declare their faith, preached all were free to be saved with hard work and faith
Burned-Over District
western New York, characterized by frequent "hell-and-brimstone" revivals
Baptists and Methodists
preachers would travel from one location to another and attract thousands to hear their dramatic preaching at outdoor revival or camp meetings, converted many unchurched into respectable members
Peter Cartwright
Baptist and Methodist circuit preacher
Millennialism
based on belief that the world was going to end with the second coming of Christ, led to the Seventh-Day Adventists
William Miller
preacher who predicted a specific date (October 21, 1844) when the second coming would occur
Mormons
Church of Latter-Day Saints, founded by Joseph Smith in 1830, gathered a following and moved to several states, local mob murdered Smith, moved to Great Salt Lake in Utah and established Great Zion, cooperative social organization led them to prosperity
Book of Mormon
traced a connection between the Native Americans and the lost tribes of Israel
Polygamy
allowing a man to have more than one wife
Transcendentalists
Emerson and Thoreau questioned doctrines of established churches and capitalistic habits of merchant class, argued for mystical and intuitive way of thinking as a means for discovering one's inner self and looking for the essence of God in nature, views challenged materialism, artistic expression was more valuable than pursuit of wealth
Ralph Waldo Emerson
best known transcendentalist, essays expressed individualistic mood of the era, urged Americans not to imitate European culture but to create new American culture, essays argued for self-reliance, independent thinking, primacy of spiritual matters over material ones, became a leading critic of slavery
Henry David Thoreau
close friend of Emerson, conducted a two-year experiment of living by himself in the woods, used observations of nature to discover essential truths about life and the universe, Walden
On Civil Disobedience
Thoreau, established himself as an early advocate of nonviolent protest, refused to pay a tax to support Mexican-American war, would inspire Gandhi and MLK
Brook Farm
George Ripley founded it, communal experiment, "a more natural union between intellectual and manual labor", Emerson, Fuller, Theodore Parker, Hawthorne lived there, bad fire and debts forced the end of the experiment, remembered for its atmosphere of artistic creativity and an innovative school that attracted sons and daughters of New England's elite
Shakers
earliest religious communal movements, 6000 community members, common property, kept women and men separate, forbade marriage and sexual relations, died out in mid 1900s when they couldn't recruit new members
Amana Settlements
founded in Iowa by German Pietists, dedicated to an ascetic life, allowed for marriage, helped to ensure survival of their communities
New Harmony
secular experiment was work of Robert Owen, hoped his utopian socialist community would provide an answer to problems of inequity and alienation caused by Industrial Revolution, experiment failed as a result of disagreements and financial problems
George Ripley
Brook Farm founder
Robert Owen
New Harmony founder
Oneida Community
John Humphrey Noyes 1848 started a cooperative community, dedicated to idea of perfect social and economic equality, members of community shared property, later shared marriage partners, critics attacked planned reproduction and communal child-rearing, managed to prosper economically by producing excellent silverware
John Humphrey Noyes
founded of Oneida Community
Fourier Phalanxes
1840s many Americans became interested in his ideas, people should share work and living arrangements in these, movement died out quickly
Charles Fourier
French socialist who advocated sharing work and living arrangements
Genre Painting
portraying the everyday life of ordinary people
George Caleb Bingham
depicted the common people in various settings: riverboats, voting, carrying out chores
William S. Mount
won fame for his lively rural compositions
Thomas Cole and Frederick Church
emphasized heroic beauty of American landscapes, especially dramatic scenes along the Hudson River
Hudson River School
school that expressed the romantic age's fascination with the natural world
Architecture
Americans adapted classical Greek styles during Jacksonian era to glorify the democratic spirit of the republic, columned facades graced entryways
Literature
many writers along with Transcendentalists helped to create a distinctly American type, became more nationalistic and eager to reader works of American writers about American themes
James Fenimore Cooper
Leatherstocking Tales included "Last of the Mohicans", "The Pathfinder", "The Deerslayer"
Nathaniel Hawthorne
"The Scarlet Letter" and other works of his questioned intolerance and conformity of American life
Stages of Reform
at first, leaders hoped to improve people's behavior through moral persuasion, after they tried sermons, they moved on to political action and creating new institutions to replace the old
Temperance
five gallons of hard alcohol was consumed per person in 1820, alcohol was targeted as a social ill, shift from moral exhortation to political action, million temperance members, path to middle-class respectability, German and Irish immigrants were opposed to it, factory owners and politicians joined because it would reduce crime and poverty and increase worker output
American Temperance Society
1826 ministers and others concerned with effects of excess drinking formed this organization, tried to persuade drinkers not just to moderate their drinking but to take a pledge of abstinence
Washingtonians
temperance society begun in 1840 by recovering alcoholics, argued alcoholism was a disease that needed practical, helpful treatment
Maine
1851 first state to prohibit the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors
Public Asylums
humanitarian reformers called attention to criminals, emotionally disturbed, and paupers, forced to live in retched conditions, reformers set up new public institutions to help cure individuals of these antisocial behaviors
Mental Hospitals
Dorothea Dix was horrified to find mentally ill persons locked up with convicted criminals, dedicated life to improving their conditions, her report of conditions led many states to build new mental hospitals, give mental treatment
Dorothea Dix
leading insane asylum reformer
Thomas Gallaudet
founded a school for the deaft
Dr. Samuel Gridley
founded a school for the blind
Prisons
new penitentiaries experimented with technique of placing prisoners in solitary confinement to force them to reflect on their sin, dropped because of high suicide rates, structure and discipline would bring about moral reform
Auburn system
penal experiment, enforced rigid rules of discipline while providing moral instruction and work programs
Horace Mann
leading advocate of the public school movement, compulsory attendance for all children, longer school year, increased teacher preparation, tax-supported schools quickly spread
Moral Education
Mann and others wanted children to be instructed in principles of morality
McGuffey Readers
created a series of elementary textbooks that became widely accepted as the basis of reading and moral instruction in hundreds of schools, extolled the virtues of punctuality, hard work, and sobriety, William Holmes McGuffey
Higher Education
religious enthusiasm of Second Great Awakening helped fuel growth of private colleges, Mt. Holyoke and Oberlin College began to admit women
Lyceum Lecture Societies
helped adult education, provided speakers to small-town audiences
American Family
roles of men and women were redefined, men would leave the home six days a week to work, women would remain at home and take care of the household and children, industrialization led families to have fewer children
New York Female Moral Reform Society
society that worked to prevent impoverished young women from being forced into lives of prostitution
Cult of Domesticity
women concentrated on the care of home and children, idealized view of women as moral leaders in the home and educators of the children
Letters on the Condition of Women and the Equality of the Sexes
1837 written by the Grimke sisters, objected to male opposition to heir antislavery activities
Seneca Falls Convention
1848 conference of leading feminists, issued a document, first women's rights convention, Stanton and Susan B. Anthony led campaign for equal voting, legal and property rights
Declaration of Sentiments
"all men and women are created equal", listed women's grievances against laws and customs that discriminated against them
American Colonization Society
1817 transporting freed slaves to an African colony, idea appealed to antislavery reformers with moderate views, politicians who wanted to banish blacks, 1822 founded society in Liberia, never proved practical, slave population grew greatly
The Liberator
1831 founded by William Lloyd Garrison, marked the beginning of the radical abolitionist movement, uncompromising views in newspaper, immediate abolition of slaves without compensation
American Antislavery Society
began in 1833 by Garrison and other leading abolitionists, Garrison condemned and burned the Constitution as a pro-slavery document, "no Union with slaveholders" until they repented their sins
Liberty Party
a group of northern abolitionists who believed political action would be successful formed this party, ran James Birney in 1840 and 1844, pledge to bring about the end of slaver by political and legal means
Black Abolitionists
escaped slaves and free blacks were outspoken and convincing, spoke about brutality and degradation of slavery, Douglass, Harriet Tubman, David Ruggles, Sojourner Truth, William Still, helped organize efforts to assist fugitive slaves escape to the North
Frederick Douglass
spoke about the brutality and degradation of slavery from first-hand experiences, "The North Star"
David Walker and Henry Highland Garnet
two northern blacks who advocated the most radical solution to the slavery question, slaves should take action themselves by rising up in revolt
Nat Turner
1831 Virginia slave led a revolt in which 55 whites were killed, hundreds of blacks were killed in retaliation, fear of future uprisings put an end to antislavery talk in the South
American Peace Society
founded in 1828, objective of abolishing war, influenced some New England reformers to oppose Mexican War
Other Reforms
anti-war reforms, laws to protect seamen from being flogged, dietary reforms, dress reform for women, phrenology
Phrenology
the study of the skull's shape to assess a person's character and ability
Southern Reaction to Reform
reforms succeeded very little in South, had no effect, more committed to tradition, slow to support public education and humanitarian reforms, alarmed to see anti-slavery reforms in the North
David Ruggles
an anti-slavery activist who was active in the New York Committee of Vigilance and the Underground Railroad. As an "African-American printer in New York City during the 1830s", who "was the prototype for black activist journalists of his time". He claimed to have led over six hundred people, including friend and fellow abolitionist Frederick Douglass, to freedom in the North.
Harriet Tubman
United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North (1820-1913)
William Still
African American abolitionist and author; 18th son of ex-slaves; wrote The Underground Railroad which chronicles how he helped 649 slaves escape to freedom via the Underground Railroad
Lucretia Mott
Quaker activist in both the abolitionist and women's movements; with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, she was a principal organizer of the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848.
Sojourner Truth
United States abolitionist and feminist who was freed from slavery and became a leading advocate of the abolition of slavery and for the rights of women (1797-1883)