Upgrade to remove ads
American Government Chapter 2
Terms in this set (92)
A written grant of authority from the king
Consisting of two houses
Consisting of one house
A joining of several groups for a common purpose
Albany Plan Of Union
An annual Congress of delegates from each of the 13 colonies which had the power to raise military, make war and peace and regulate trade with Native Americans, and collect custom duties
A refusal to buy or sell a product or service
Government can exist only with the consent of the governed
Basic concepts of government
this created local governments and the offices and units of government are still around today
What things did the ordered government set up that are still around today?
-Offices of sheriff
-justice of the peace
-the grand jury
-divided into counties and townships
the idea that individuals have certain rights that the government can't take away
the idea that government should serve the will of the people
Landmark English Documents
-Petition of Right
-English Bill of Rights
-The Great Charter
-this document was "signed" by King John and included rights such as trial by jury, due process of law, and right to private property
-Established the principle that the power of the monarchy was not absolute
-only the wealthy had rights in the beginning
The Petition of Right
-Parliament refused to give Charles I more money in the form of taxes until he signed this document
-limits the king's power
-challenged idea of divine right
-declared that a monarch must obey the law of the land
What did the Petition of Right change about the King's powers?
The king could no longer:
-imprison or punish any person without justification
-require homeowners to shelter troops
-impose martial law in a time of peace
English Bill of Rights
-this document was agreed to by William and Mary of Orange during the Glorious Revolution
-included guarantees of rights to fair trial, free elections, freedom from excessive bail, and cruel and unusual punishment
-designed to prevent abuse of power by English monarchs
What did the English Bill of Rights get from the Magna Carta?
-freedom from excessive bail
-freedom from cruel and unusual punishment
The English Colonies
-Jamestown, Virginia was the first
-all established on a charter
Three types of English Colonies
-subject to the direct control of the King
-council is upper house
-elected property owners are lower house
-king controls by assigning the governor and councilor
-run by a person that the king gave a grant of land to
-organized by a proprietor
-proprietor assigns governor
-unicameral or bicameral
-self-governed with little king control
-white, male, property owners could be governor
-laws not subjected to kingdom
What two Colonies used their charters for their state constitutions?
Connecticut and Rhode Island
Was the Albany Plan accepted?
Who proposed the Albany Plan?
The Stamp Act Congress
-Parliament was passing too many laws
-Colonies didn't like it
-protested, boycotted and gathered
Boston Tea Party
Most famous protest of British taxes
Parliament passed acts which led to the meeting of the First Continental Congress
The First Continental Congress
-this produced a formal protest to the king
-Declaration of Rights and Grievances
-delegates urged colonies to refuse all trade with England until taxes and trade relations were repealed
-gathered in NY to lay out grievances
The Second Continental Congress
First national government of the US
Declaration of Rights
Tried to get regulations repealed
What was the Second Continental Congress first to do?
-build up an army
-first national debt
-first national treaties
Results of the First Continental Congress
-Declaration of rights
-general boycott of British trade
Why did Parliament have no influence and when and why did that change ?
-Distance was too great to have influence
-money caused it to change
-changed in the 1700s
Why did the colonies not like the taxes?
-"taxation without representation"
Common features of state constitutions
-civil rights and liberties
-separation of powers and checks and balances
Powers under the Articles of Confederation
-Raise military, navy, and establish an army
-make war and peace
How many did there have to be to approve the Articles if Confederation?
Weaknesses of the Articles?
-Congress had no power to tax
-Congress couldn't enforce acts
-every state had one vote
-no provisions for trade
-no national currency
Results from Mount Vernon and Anapolis
It leads to the Constitutional convention
Where did the constitutional convention take place?
What two states brought along change and called for a stronger central government?
Maryland and Virginia
Delegates who attended the constitutional convention and writers of the Constitution
What was common between the framers?
They were all educated, wealthy, and had a political background
What big decision did they come to towards the beginning of the constitutional convention?
To get rid of the articles of confederation instead of amending it
Why did delegates of small states object the Virginia plan?
They did not have equal representation and did not have as much say
Sources of influence on the framers
-articles of confederation
Commerce and slave trade compromise
Congress could not regulate trade between states and cannot act on slave trade for 20 years
Debate on if slaves should be counted
-Important because the north did not want slaves to count as citizens because the southern states would have more representation and the southern states wanted slaves to count as their population because they could have more influence
-Bicameral-house- based on population
-senate -Equal representation
-Deals with agreement of Congress
On what date was the final draft of the constitution signed?
September 17, 1787
Articles of Confederation
Established a firm league of friendship and allowed states to keep sovereignty, independence, and freedom
-representation based on population or money given to congress
-favored big states
-strong central government
New Jersey Plan
-representation is equal
-favored small states
-small group of executives
-stronger central government
The Critical Period
-making deals with foreign governments
Who was elected to serve as president of the convention?
Who was the floor leader and the most prominent contributor to the constitution?
--Father of the Constitution
Why was work kept secret at the convention?
The didn't want outside influence so people could speak freely
Articles of Confederation
Established a firm League of friendship among the states
President of Congress
New England Confederation
-this was intended to be a league of friendship set up for protection against the Native Americans
-dissolves in 1684
What two groups emerged in the states after the Constitution was created?
Federalists and Antifederalists
Which two features of the Constitution drew the most criticism?
-lack of Bill of Rights
-greatly increased powers of the central government
What was the collection of 85 essays supporting the Constitution?
The Federalist Papers
Where did the Congress of the Confederation choose as a temporary capital?
How many states were needed to ratify the Constitution?
9/13 but 13/13 was preferred
True or False:
the absence of the bill of rights was a cause for many people to oppose ratification of the Constitution
True or False:
most opponents of ratification believed the new Constitution gave too little power the the National Government
True or False:
the votes in Virginia and New York brought the number of ratifying states to nine
True or False:
One objection to the new constitution is that it did not incorporate principles of natural law
Why was ratification of the Constitution crucial in Virginia and New York?
They were two of the largest, most populous states, so without them the government would probably not succeed
What was the significance of "The Federalist"?
it was a convincing commentary on the meaning of the Constitution
Why were Anti-Federalists so powerful during the ratification process?
many of their leaders had also led during the Revolutionary War
True or False:
Free speech, freedom of the press, and freedom of religion was explicitly guaranteed during the ratification process of the Constitution
The 13 British Colonies
-New Hampshire -New York
-Rhode Island -Pennsylvania
-New Jersey -Virginia
-North Carolina -South Carolina
The Declaration of Independence
-majority=listing grievances with the King
-signed July 4, 1776
The Articles of Confederation
-established a "firm league of friendship"
-needed all thirteen colonies to ratify
Who did not attend the convention?
-favored ratification of the Constitution
-stressed weaknesses of the Articles
-wanted a strong central government because:
-problems with Articles
-fearful for more problems
-no Bill of Rights
-central government was very powerful
-no mention of God
-states being able to print money
1st to Ratify
Last to Ratify (out of 9)
Two most important states to ratify and why
New York and Virginia
because they were large and populous
Who wrote "The Federalist" and why?
-to try to persuade and ensure that New York would ratify the Constitution
Who was elected as president and vice president?
Federalist Papers today
-tells us a lot about the Constitution
-supreme court references them when trying to interpret cases
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
American Government- Chapter 2
American Government Chapter 3
American Government, American Government
American Government Unit 1
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Government Chapter 2 Test
Fed Gov Ch 2
Government chapter 2 (without dates)
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Chapter 18: Judicial Branch
Government - Chapter 12
Government Chapter 10 Review