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52 terms

Female Reproductive System

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What type of epithelium do early primary follicles have?
simple cuboidal
What produces the oviduct in females?
mullerian duct
Development of ovaries over testes occurs when?
there is an abscens of TDF and mullerian inhibiting factor
What are the stages of follicular development?
primordial follicle-->primary follicle-->multilayered primary follicle-->secondary follicle-->graafian follicle
What is the structure of the primordial follicle?
simple squamous layer of follicular cells
What do the follicular cells develop into?
granulosa cells
What do stromal cells develop into?
theca interna and theca externa
The primordial follicle has stromal cells, but no...
theca cells
What is the nature of theca externa cells?
connective tissue
What is the fnc of theca interna cells?
create and secrete ANDROSTENEDIONE (androgen)
What cells convert androgens to estradiol (estrogen)?
granulosa cells
When does zona pellucida formation begin?
in the primary follicle
What is the zona pellucida?
an amorphous substance secreted between the granulosa cells and the oocyte
How do cellular processes from oocyte contact granulosa cells through the zona?
gap junctions
What do granulosa cells secrete into the intercellular space of the follicle to create the secondary follicle?
liquor folliculi
What does the liquor folliculi contain?
secretory products:estrogen, progesterone, inhibin
What does the liquor folliculi become?
ANTRUM
What are the granulosa cells surrounding the secondary follicle called?
corona radiata
How is the corona radiata connected to the other side of the follicle?
cumulus oophorous
What happens to the cumulus oophorous just before ovulation?
it breaks down, allowing the oocyte to float freely within the antrum
The mature follicle has a fully developed....
ampulla
What happens at ovulation?
the follicle swells through the tunica albiguinea and germinal epithelium, and bursts releasing the egg into the pelvic cavity
When does the first meiotic division occur?
just before ovulation
When does the second meiotic division occur?
only if fertilization occurs, in the oviduct
What kept the oocyte from meiotically dividing before just before ovulation?
oocyte maturation inhibitor
What activated the oocyte to counteract effects of OMI and mature?
MPF
Before ovulation the granulosa cell produces...
estrogen
After ovulation the corpora lutea produces...
progesterone
What is the function of progesterone?
induces growth of the endometrial lining preparing for implantation
After ovulation, the follicle becomes....
corpora lutea
After ovulation the theca interna becomes...
theca lutea, still produces androgens and progesterone
After ovulation granulosa cells are called...
granulosa lutean cells, and continue to produce progesterone and convert androgens to estradiol
If pregnancy occurs, what happens to the corpora? If it does not?
1. corpora persists for up to 3 months 2. corpora becomes corpora albicans and degenerates
A surge in what hormone induces ovulation?
LH
What happens to the secondary oocyte after ovulation?
it is directed to the oviduct by the fimbriae
what are the 4 parts of the oviduct?
fimbriae, ampulla, isthmus, uterine
Where does fert occur?
ampulla
what types of cells are in oviduct?
peg cells and ciliated cells
what type of epithelium is in oviduct?
simple columnar
Structure of endocervix
simple columnar epithelium, mucous glands
structure of ectocervix
stratified squamous, along with vagina
Mucous glands of the ectocervix may become blocked to form what?
cysts
What characterizes primary villi? secondary? tertiary?
1. syncytiotrophoblast and cytotrophoblast 2. addition of mesenchym 3. formation of blood vessels
What do the stromal cells of the uterus become?
decidua, to help nourish the early implant
What gives rigidity to the umbilical cord?
mucous CT or wharton's jelly
What is merocrine secretion?
When the membrane surround protein to be released fuses with the plasma membrane, and only the protein is released
apocrine secretion
ex. milk from mammary gland, and some sweat glands, produces secretion in tiny vesicles for stimulus to release. surface membrane bulges out with vescicles then pinches off like cell division and releases cell. fragments of cell are released.
Inactive Mammary gland is composed of
adipose tissue, CT, inactive alveoli
Lactating mammary gland is...
mostly glandular, adipose tissue has been replaced by glands
What is the function of inhibin?
blocks the action of FSh from the basophils of the pituitary
What is the function of FSH?
stimulates growth of the ovarian follicle and production of estrogen
LH function
stimulates ovulation and development of corpus luteum, stimulates prog and estrog production