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What type of epithelium do early primary follicles have?

simple cuboidal

What produces the oviduct in females?

mullerian duct

Development of ovaries over testes occurs when?

there is an abscens of TDF and mullerian inhibiting factor

What are the stages of follicular development?

primordial follicle-->primary follicle-->multilayered primary follicle-->secondary follicle-->graafian follicle

What is the structure of the primordial follicle?

simple squamous layer of follicular cells

What do the follicular cells develop into?

granulosa cells

What do stromal cells develop into?

theca interna and theca externa

The primordial follicle has stromal cells, but no...

theca cells

What is the nature of theca externa cells?

connective tissue

What is the fnc of theca interna cells?

create and secrete ANDROSTENEDIONE (androgen)

What cells convert androgens to estradiol (estrogen)?

granulosa cells

When does zona pellucida formation begin?

in the primary follicle

What is the zona pellucida?

an amorphous substance secreted between the granulosa cells and the oocyte

How do cellular processes from oocyte contact granulosa cells through the zona?

gap junctions

What do granulosa cells secrete into the intercellular space of the follicle to create the secondary follicle?

liquor folliculi

What does the liquor folliculi contain?

secretory products:estrogen, progesterone, inhibin

What does the liquor folliculi become?


What are the granulosa cells surrounding the secondary follicle called?

corona radiata

How is the corona radiata connected to the other side of the follicle?

cumulus oophorous

What happens to the cumulus oophorous just before ovulation?

it breaks down, allowing the oocyte to float freely within the antrum

The mature follicle has a fully developed....


What happens at ovulation?

the follicle swells through the tunica albiguinea and germinal epithelium, and bursts releasing the egg into the pelvic cavity

When does the first meiotic division occur?

just before ovulation

When does the second meiotic division occur?

only if fertilization occurs, in the oviduct

What kept the oocyte from meiotically dividing before just before ovulation?

oocyte maturation inhibitor

What activated the oocyte to counteract effects of OMI and mature?


Before ovulation the granulosa cell produces...


After ovulation the corpora lutea produces...


What is the function of progesterone?

induces growth of the endometrial lining preparing for implantation

After ovulation, the follicle becomes....

corpora lutea

After ovulation the theca interna becomes...

theca lutea, still produces androgens and progesterone

After ovulation granulosa cells are called...

granulosa lutean cells, and continue to produce progesterone and convert androgens to estradiol

If pregnancy occurs, what happens to the corpora? If it does not?

1. corpora persists for up to 3 months 2. corpora becomes corpora albicans and degenerates

A surge in what hormone induces ovulation?


What happens to the secondary oocyte after ovulation?

it is directed to the oviduct by the fimbriae

what are the 4 parts of the oviduct?

fimbriae, ampulla, isthmus, uterine

Where does fert occur?


what types of cells are in oviduct?

peg cells and ciliated cells

what type of epithelium is in oviduct?

simple columnar

Structure of endocervix

simple columnar epithelium, mucous glands

structure of ectocervix

stratified squamous, along with vagina

Mucous glands of the ectocervix may become blocked to form what?


What characterizes primary villi? secondary? tertiary?

1. syncytiotrophoblast and cytotrophoblast 2. addition of mesenchym 3. formation of blood vessels

What do the stromal cells of the uterus become?

decidua, to help nourish the early implant

What gives rigidity to the umbilical cord?

mucous CT or wharton's jelly

What is merocrine secretion?

When the membrane surround protein to be released fuses with the plasma membrane, and only the protein is released

apocrine secretion

ex. milk from mammary gland, and some sweat glands, produces secretion in tiny vesicles for stimulus to release. surface membrane bulges out with vescicles then pinches off like cell division and releases cell. fragments of cell are released.

Inactive Mammary gland is composed of

adipose tissue, CT, inactive alveoli

Lactating mammary gland is...

mostly glandular, adipose tissue has been replaced by glands

What is the function of inhibin?

blocks the action of FSh from the basophils of the pituitary

What is the function of FSH?

stimulates growth of the ovarian follicle and production of estrogen

LH function

stimulates ovulation and development of corpus luteum, stimulates prog and estrog production

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