28 terms

Humanities: Greek Architecture Terms

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Column
A supporting pillar consisting of a base, a cylindrical shaft, and a capital
Capital
The head or crowning feature of a column or pilaster
Shaft
The main body of a column, pilaster or pier between the capital and the base
Corinthian
Is a shaft with acanthus (leaves) decorating the capital on top
Acanthus
A caved ornament based on the leaves of the acanthus plant especially as used on a capital of a Corinthian column
Doric
Is the oldest and plainest of the three orders of Classical Greek architecture. It became the preferred style of the Greek mainland and the western colonies (southern Italy, Sicily)
Base
The lowest part of a structure for example a column
Ionic
is a cylindrical shaft with a volute (scroll shaped) top on the shaft. Characterized by fluted columns and prominent volutes on the capitals
volute
a spiral scroll characteristic of ionic capitals
portico
the principal porch or entrance to a greek temple; roofed and usually opened on the sides
colonnade
a range of columns supporting either arches or even an entablature and usually one side of a roof
pediment
a triangular gable across a portico, door or window; any similar triangular decorative piece over a doorway
entablure
the top of an order (column), horizontally divided into cornice, frieze, and architrave; supported by a colonnade
cornice
any crowning projection
egg-and-dart
molding/projections that are used to decorate the eaves or roof line of a building; egg and dart
dentil
square teeth-like projections (molding) that are used to decorate the eaves or roof line of a building
frieze
the middle section of the classic entablature; an area below the roof area that often was decorated with designs, sculptures, or pictures
architrave
chief beam
acroterion
an ornament or statue placed atop the pediment
metope
the spaces between two triglyphs on a Doric frieze which usually includes bas/high relief
triglyphs
re vertical blocks, usually aligned over and between each column. The grooved projecting blocks between the metopes in a Doric frieze
high relief
a sculptural carving, embossing, or casting where some parts are actually detached from the background
bas relief
a sculptural carving, embossing, or casting that projects very little from the background
flute
shallow a vertical grooves on the shaft of a column
stylobate
is a platform on which colonnades of columns are placed (it is the "floor" of the temple") Is used to describe only the topmost step of the temple's base
stereobate
is used to describe the remaining steps of the platform beneath the stylobate and just above the leveling course
caryatid
a human figure, usually female, functioning as a pier, column or pilaster supporting an entablature. Traditionally taken to represent the women of Caryae, who sided with the Persians against the Greeks and were made slaves.
pilaster
a flat-faced representation of a column, projecting from a wall