Rhetorical devices E block
Terms in this set (74)
Some of its types include ,irony, hyperbole, metaphor, allegory, litotes, pun, personification, simile, metonymy, and synecdoche, etc. Here are some examples of the types of trope. Example: a ticking clock.
- Using a vaguely suggestive, physical object to embody a more general idea: CROWN for royalty; the PEN is mightier than the SWORD. "If we cannot strike offenders in the heart, let us strike them in the wallet."
-- Using a part of a physical object to represent the whole object: "Twenty eyes watched our every move" (i.e., ten people watched our every move). "A hungry stomach has no ears" (La Fontaine). "All hands on deck!"
Using one verb with two or more different objects: "You are free to execute your laws, and your citizens, as you see fit."
giving human qualities to things that aren't human
ex: The stars danced playfully in the moonlit sky.
ex: I could hear Hawaii calling my name.
saying something that is an exaggeration ex: Mom, if I don't get some dinner soon, I will starve to death! ex2: My father drives 1,000 miles per hour!
saying something slightly negative to make a point. Example: "The ice cream was not too bad."
crossing senses to create a sentence
Oxymoron (plural oxymora, also called paradox) --
making a sentence that weirdly makes sense. ex: I know one thing; that I know nothing.
Figures of speech that deal with word order, syntax, letters, and sounds, rather than the meaning of words.
When the writer establishes similar patterns of grammatical structure and length.
Example: Like father, like son.
If the writer uses two parallel structures, the result is like this example: "The bigger they are, the harder they fall.", "Buy one, get one.", "More saving. More doing"
If there are three structures, it is like this example: "That government of the people, by the people, and for the people shall not perish from the earth." Or, as one student wrote, "Her purpose was to impress the ignorant, to perplex the dubious, and to startle the complacent."
ex: You are talking to a man who has laughed in the face of death, sneered at doom, and chuckled at catastrophe.
ex: Tell me and I forget. Teach me and I remember. Involve me and I learn.
Antithesis (plural: antitheses)
Balancing words, phrases, or ideas that are strongly contrasted, often by means of grammatical structure Eg: Dumbledore and Voldemort in Harry Potter
Inverted word order from what one expects: "One ad does not a survey make." ex: A roast is what we will have for dinner.
Repetition of a phrase in reverse order: "If you fail to plan, you plan to fail."
Taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out to create a sentence that flips: "Charm is a woman's strength, strength is a man's charm."
Omitting a word implied by the previous clause. Ex: " 'HOW OLD CARY GRANT?-to which he responded: 'OLD CARY GRANT FINE. HOW YOU?'"
Using no conjunctions to create an effect of speed or simplicity
Example: I remember those evenings at Grandma's - full of laughter, food, family.
Using many conjunctions to achieve an overwhelming effect
Example: For Christmas, I want a doll and a ball and an IPad and a new pair of boots.
placing things in rising order ex: A little girl has been looking for her lost dog. She hears a bark coming from around the corner, and she looks around to see . . .
anticlimax or bathos (not to be confused with pathos)
placing things in the defending order
Example: Tension builds in a horror movie as a young girl approaches a closed door. There is a scratching sound coming from behind the door. When she opens it, a cat comes out.
Appeals to an audience's sense of morality/trust; Achieved by projecting an image of credibility which supports the speaker's position
Example: "Doctors all over the world recommend this type of treatment."
A Greek term that refers to suffering but has come to be associated with broader appeals to emotion; one of Aristotle's three rhetorical appeals
1) "the actor injects his customary humor and pathos into the role"
A Greek term that means "word"; an appeal to logic; one of Aristotle's three rhetorical appeals. Ex: "In 25 years of driving the same route, I haven't seen a single deer."
Repetition of a sound in multiple words
Example: The wind was whistling through the weeping willows.
the repetition of consonant sounds
-Mike likes his new bike.
- I will crawl away the ball
the repetition of vowel sounds
Example: Go and mow the lawn.
Repetition of beginning clauses.
Repetition of concluding word(s)
Example: Last week, he was just fine. This week, he was just fine. And today, he was just fine.
A story or visual image with a second distinct meaning partially hidden behind its literal or visible meaning
Allegory of the Cave
A word, phrase, or clause to which a following pronoun refers. Example: David plays football in the courtyard. All the children have gathered there.
An event or situation that may be interpreted in more than one way. Example 1: A good life depends on a liver. Example 2: Each of us saw her duck.
addressing someone that cannot answer
Ugh, cell phone, why won't you load my messages?
Balancing words, phrases, or ideas that are strongly contrasted, often by means of grammatical structure
A reference to a well-known person, place, event, literary work, or work of art
Example: Potato chips are my diet's Achilles heel. (reference to Achilles in mythology)
A comparison of two different things that are similar in some way
ex: As the sword is the weapon for the warrior, the pen is the weapon for the writer.
Just as a caterpillar comes out of its cocoon, so we must come out of our comfort zone.
A brief narrative that focuses on a particular incident or event.
ex: You know, when I was a kid, my dog was my best friend. My childhood was better because of him.
harsh, jarring noise. Example: I detest war because cause of war is always trivial.
Rythmic rise and fall. ex: Read Edgar Allen Poe "The Raven" out loud
A list of things, people, or events.
Ex: For there's Basie, Miller, Sachmo
And the king of all Sir Duke
And with a voice like Ella's ringing out
use of informal language such as slang Examples: y'all - you all, to bamboozle = to deceive, gonna = going to
a slight discrepancy between what is said and what happens
Example: A writer is working on his manuscript, and it's a comedy. The days have been fraught with rain and clouds, bringing down his mood and hampering his ability to craft witty scenes. As he opens his blinds one morning, he sees the dark clouds outside again and says, "Great. Another rainy day. How wonderful."
A metaphor developed at great length, occurring frequently in or throughout a work. ex: In As You Like It, Shakespeare develops an extended metaphor comparing life to a drama performed on stage: "All the world's a stage and all the men and women merely players. One man in his time plays may parts."
peculiar to or characteristic of a given language or a particular group of people
ex: The assignment is a piece of cake
ex: I will clean my room when pigs fly
Any combination of disparate elements that form a unified, single image
Example: The movie Batman Begins tells the story of Bruce Wayne's transformation into Batman, and uses an extended montage to explain his criminal past. This narrated montage is accompanied by the sound of Bruce Wayne explaining and defending his past actions in discussion with another character, and is intercut with dramatic shots of the two characters sword fighting.
A recurring element, such as an image, theme, or type of incident.
Example: blood in Macbeth
descriptive language in which words and sentence patterns create an effect or atmosphere. Example: Its surface is hilly, and its appearance (in many parts) somewhat sterile, though in the main, and especially in the neighbourhood of Lough Erne.
A 19th century artistic movement in which writers and painters sought to show life as it is rather than life as it should be.
This flexible term describes the variety, the conventions, and the purpose of the major kinds of writing. The four most common of these include exposition, argumentation, description, and narration. Eg: Four of the most common rhetorical modes and their purpose are narration, description, exposition, and argumentation.
Methods and techniques that speakers use to achieve their speaking goals, ex: look at other flashcards for ex's of rhetorical strategies
language that conveys a speaker's attitude or opinion with regard to a particular subject. It is broader than, and actually includes, tone as part of the writer's purpose.
A question asked merely for rhetorical effect and not requiring an answer. Example: "Do you want to be a big failure for the rest of your life?"
A writer's attitude toward his or her subject matter revealed through diction, figurative language, and organization on the sentence and global levels. example of sarcastic tone from "Catcher in the Rye": "Catholics are always trying to find out if you're Catholic."
the presentation of something as being smaller, worse, or less important than it actually is.
Example: You just hit the biggest lottery of all time! An understatement would be: "I'm kind of excited."
the hidden or underlying meaning of something
Example: This mint is really delicious. It's got a very unique flavor. Do you want one?
The enthusiasm expressed by this person is an example of subtext. As beneath this message is the clue that someone else has bad breath and should take the mint.
A sentence that presents its central meaning in a main clause at the end. The independent clause is preceded by a phrase or clause that cannot stand alone. The effect is to add emphasis and structural variety. ex: In spite of heavy snow and cold temperatures, the game continued. ex2: With low taxes, beautiful views and a mild climate, this city is a great place to live.
A sentence in which the main independent clause is elaborated by the successive addition of modifying clauses or phrases (main clause is at the beginning)
Eg: "He dipped his hands in the bichloride solution and shook them--a quick shake, fingers down, like the fingers of a pianist above the keys."
A sentence constructed so that the predicate comes before the subject (ex: In the woods I am walking.) Example of incorrect and correct syntax. Incorrect - Happy about her upcoming promotion, the trip home was full of singing.
Correct - Happy about her upcoming promotion, Sammie sang all the way home.
description, exposition, persuasion, narration
the four rhetorical modes
Cumulative sentence. Know definition and how to write one.
a sentence in which the main independent clause is elaborated by the successive addition of modifing clauses or phrases. ex: "He dipped his hands in the bichloride solution and shook them--a quick shake, fingers down, like the fingers of a pianist above the keys."
Periodic sentence. Know definition and how to write one.
A sentence that departs from the usual word order of English sentences by expressing its main thought only at the end. In other words, the particulars in the sentence are presented before the idea they support.
Telegraphic sentence. Know definition and how to write one.
concise sentences typically containing five words or less
Example: Leave at door
A mild or indirect word or expression substituted for one considered to be too harsh or blunt when referring to something unpleasant or embarrassing: "We are downsizing" Example: You are becoming a little thin on top.
The false assignment of an event, person, scene, or language to a time when the event, person, scene, or word did not exist. ex: Shakespeare writes of a clock in Julius Caesar, when clocks would not have existed in ancient Rome: "Brutus: Peace! Count the clock. Cassius: The clock has stricken three."
A concise statement that expresses succinctly a general truth or idea, often using rhyme or balance.
the expression of one's meaning by using language that normally signifies the opposite, typically for humorous or emphatic effect. Dramatic irony occurs when the audience knows something the characters do not.
1) ""Don't go overboard with the gratitude," he rejoined with heavy irony"
2)Two people are engaged to be married but the audience knows that the man is planning to run away with another woman.
3)Two people are engaged to be married but the audience knows that the man is planning to run away with another woman.
An elaborate metaphor. Example: Spill the beans
a speech or piece of writing that praises someone or something highly, typically someone who has just died.
Intended to instruct. Example: Thirty days hath September,
April, June, and November;
February has twenty-eight alone,
All the rest have thirty-one,
Excepting leap year, that's the time
When February's days are twenty-nine.
The fact of two things being seen or placed close together with contrasting effect.
Eg: It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness
A homily is a speech or sermon given by a priest in a Roman Catholic Church after a scripture has been read.
1) Homilies are given during traditional mass but also during any other mass such as at a wedding, baptism or funeral.
2) There are various techniques a priest will use to effectively convey his message during a homily. Often during a homily the priest will use his own experience to help listeners to understand the meaning of scripture or the purpose of his homily.
A category of literary composition determined by literary technique, tone, content, or length
Features or practices of certain genres that readers or audiences understand, recognize and accept as techniques to facilitate the plot.
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