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Molecular genetics

frameshift mutation

deletion or addition of nucleotides; shifts reading frame

missense mutation

substitution of wrong nucleotide into DNA; still prodices a protein

nonsense mutation

susbstitution of wrong nucleotide into DNA that produces an early stop codon


process by which mRNA is synthesixes on a SNA template

RNA processing

introls are spliced out, exons are glued together, 3' poly-A tail, 5' G cap


process by which the mRNA specified squence of aminos acids are lined up on a ribosome for protein synthesis


triple of nucleotides that codes for a particular amino acid


base sequence that signals start site for transcription


protein that prevents the binding of RNA ploymerase to promoter site


molecule that binds to and inactivates a repressor


shorter sequence near the promoter that assists in transcription by interacting with transcription on; when absent, it is off


on/off switch for transcroption

lytic cycle

the virus is actively reproducing and kills the host cell

lysogenic cycle

the virus lies dormant within the DNA of the host cell


virus that converts host brain proteins into misshapen proteins


plant viruses


virus that infects bacteria


uptake of foreign DNA from the surronding environment

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