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24 terms

Psychology - Learning Chapter

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unconditioned response
response that takes place in an organism whenever an unconditioned stimulus occurs
unconditioned stimulus
stimulus that invariably causes an organism to respond a certain way
conditioned stimulus
is paired with an unconditional stimulus and eventually produces the desired response in an organism when presented alone
conditioned response
after conditioning, the response an organism produces when only a conditioned stimulus is presented
learning
the process by which experience or practice results in a relatively permanent change in behavior or potential behavior
classical conditioning
the tupe of learning in which a response naturally elicited by one stimulus comes to be elicited by a different stimulus
operant conditioning
type of learning selected in which behaviors are emitted in the presence of specific stimuli to earn rewards or avoid punishment
inner conflict
freud believed that phobias represent this...
superstitions
whenever a reinforver follows something we do closely we tend to repeat the action, even if the reinforcement is not produced directly by what we have done
avoidance training
using threats of punishment
shaping
reinforcing successive approximations to a desired behavior
extinction
decrease in the strength or frequency of a learned response
spontaneous recovery
the reappearance of an extinguished response after a passage of time without further training
cognitive learning
leaning that depends on mental processes that are not observable, impossible to measure
latent learning
learning that is not immediately reflected in a behavior change, is stored and used at a later time
observational learning
learning by observing other people
reinforcer
follows behavior and increases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated
punisher
follows a behavior and decreases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated
positive reinforcer
adds something rewarding to a situation
negative reinforcer
subtracts something unpleasant from the environment
primary reinforcer
stimulus that is satisfying, a neccessity, and requires no learning
secondary reinforcer
reinforcing power through experience
Edward Thorndike
experimented with operant learning with cats
B.F. Skinner
performed experiment with birds testing superstitution, operant learning