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Key Concepts:

Terms in this set (251)

- Developmental disabilities: to train a variety of functional skills to overcome behavioral deficits; to eliminate serious behavioral problems such as self-injurious behaviors, aggressive behavior, and destructive behavior; in the areas of staff training and staff management.
- Mental illness: to modify such behaviors as daily living skills, social behavior, aggressive behavior, treatment compliance, psychotic behaviors, and work skills; the development of a motivational procedure for institutional patients called a token economy.
- Education and Special Education: researchers have analyzed student-teacher interactions in the classroom, improved teaching methods, and developed procedures for reducing interfering problem behaviors in the classroom; improvement of instructional techniques and increases in student learning. In special education, research has focused on teaching methods, control of problem behaviors in the classroom, improving social behaviors and functional skills, self-management, and teacher training.
- Rehabilitation: to promote compliance with rehabilitation routines such as physical therapy, to teach new skills to replace skills lost due to the injury or trauma, to decrease problem behaviors, to help manage chronic pain, and to improve memory performance.
- Community psychology: reducing littering, increasing recycling, reducing energy consumption, reducing unsafe driving, reducing illegal drug use, increasing the use of seat belts, decreasing illegal parking in handicapped spaces, and reducing speeding.
- Clinical psychology: treatment of a wide range of problems experienced by people; training of clinical psychologists.
- Business, industry, and human services: to increase the quantity and quality of work performance and safety on the job; to decrease tardiness, absenteeism, and accidents on the job.
- Self-management: to control personal habits, health-related behaviors, professional behaviors, and personal problems.
- Child management: to help children overcome such problems as bedwetting, nail biting, temper tantrums, noncompliance, aggressive behaviors, bad manners, stuttering, and other common problems of childhood.
- Prevention: of child sexual abuse, child abduction, accidents in the home, child abuse and neglect, and sexually transmitted diseases.
- Sports performance: to improve athletic performance.
- Health-related behaviors: to increase healthy lifestyle behaviors (exercise, nutrition, etc.) and decrease unhealthy behaviors (smoking, drinking, overeating, etc.); to promote behaviors that have a positive influence on physical or medical problems; to increase compliance with medical regimens.
- Gerontology: to help elderly individuals deal with their deteriorating physical abilities, to help them adjust to nursing home environments, to promote health-related behaviors and appropriate social interactions, and to decrease problem behaviors that may arise from Alzheimer's disease, other types of dementia, or institutional demands.
Identify each of the following as an example of positive punishment, negative punishment, or extinction. When analyzing each example, be sure to ask yourself three questions. What is the behavior? What happened immediately after the behavior? (Was a stimulus added or removed, or was the reinforcer for the behavior withheld?) What happened to the behavior in the future? (Was the behavior weakened? Is it less likely to occur?)
A. Rachel got up early every morning and raided the cookie jar. Her mom realized what was going on and stopped putting cookies in the jar. After this, when Rachel reached in the cookie jar she no longer found cookies. As a result, she no longer raided the cookie jar.
B. Heather tossed eggs at the school during Halloween. The principal caught her and made her wash all the windows in the school. Heather never threw eggs at the school again.
C. Doug threw eggs at his neighbor's house during Halloween. His parents caught him and made him give his neighbors $100 to get their house cleaned. Doug never threw eggs at the neighbor's house again.
D. Ralph acted out in class and his teacher gave him a mean look. After this, Ralph never acted out in class again.
E. Suzie watched a lot of television and used the remote control to turn it on and to change the channels. One day the remote did not work. She tried it a few times and eventually quit using it.
F. Bill hit his sister and his mom took his allowance away for the week. As a result, he doesn't hit his sister anymore.
G. Amanda tried to climb the fence into an apple orchard. The fece was electrified and gave her a shock. As a result, she doesn't climb that fence anymore.