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Positioning 2 final review

final review
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The anatomical part of the sternum identified in the figure above is the:
sternum
Which projection and body position will demonstrate the sternum through the heart?
PA oblique, RAO
Which breathing techniques can be used when performing an oblique projection of the sternum?
2)expiration
3) slow, shallow breathing
What is the central-ray angulation for an AP or PA oblique projection of the chest?
0 degrees
The central-ray angle for the PA oblique projection of the sternum is:
perpendicular
The central-ray angulation for a PA projection of the sternoclavicular joint is:
0 degrees
The part of the sternum identified on the figure above is the:
xiphoid
Where is the center of the IR positioned for a PA projection of sternoclavicular joints?
third thoracic vertebra
What is the respiration phase for the PA projection of the upper ribs?
full inspiration
What is the recommended SID necessary to blur the posterior ribs on a PA oblique projection of the sternum?
30 inches
Which of the following are required to produce a chest radiograph using a decubitus position?
2) patient in the recumbant position
3) horizontal x-ray beam
What is the central ray angle for the Lindblom method (lordotic position) of demonstrating the pulmonary apices?
0 degrees
What is the respiration phase for the AP axial projection of the pulmonary apices?
inspiration
For PA oblique projections of the chest, the side of interest is generally:
the side farther from the IR
Which side is the optimal respiration phase for a PA or lateral chest radiograph?
full inspiration-second breath
Which side of the patient's chest is placed against the IR for a ventral or dorsal decubitus lateral projection?
affected side
How is the IR positioned for a lateral sternum?
top of IR is 1 1/2 inches above the jugular notch
What is the recommended SID for a PA chest radiograph?
72 inches
How is the central ray positioned for an x-ray projection done with the patient placed in a decubitus positon?
horizontal
Which of the following form the bony thorax?
1. sternum
2. 12 pairs of ribs
3. 12 thoracic vertebrae
How many degrees of body rotation are required for routine AP or PA oblique chest radiography?
45 degrees
Which plane must be accurately parallel with the IR to prevent distortion of the thoracic structures during a lateral chest radiograph?
midsaggital plane
Why is the left lateral chest position the most commonly used for lateral radiographs of the chest?
patient's heart is closer to the IR
What is the most optimal position of the patient for examinations of the heart and lungs?
upright
The aspiration of a foreign particle in the lung would be termed:
aspiration pneumonia
Which of the following will be observed on a supine AP chest radiograph?
1. clavicles projected higher
2. lung fields appear shorter
Which of the following is the recommended breathing technique that should be used when examining the ribs that lie at the level of the diaphragm?
two deep expirations and hold
When performing the PA oblique projection (body rotation technique) of the sternoclavicular articulations, which of the joints would be demonstrated?
the joint closest to the IR
Where should the patient's hands be positioned for an upright lateral sternum?
locked behind the back
Which of the following is the recommended position for optimal demonstration of the upper anterior ribs?
2. standing
3. seated upright
The right lung is about how much shorter then the left?
1 inch
What is the central-ray angle for a PA chest radiograph?
perpendicular
If the lateral decubitus position is used to demonstrate fluid in the pleural cavity, which side much the patient lie on?
affected side
Which of the following must be clearly demonstrated on x-ray projections using a decubitus position?
1. entire lung fields
2. patients arms not visible on image
3. identification to indicate decubitus
How far should the patient stand in front of the grid device before leaning backward for the lordotic position?
1 foot
Where should the top of the IR be positioned for a supine AP chest radiograph?
1 1/2 inches to 2 inches above the relaxed shoulders
What is the patient position for a lateral projection done in the dorsal decubitus position?
supine
The thoracic viscera consists of the:
1. lungs
2. mediastinum
Which ribs are demonstrated on an AP oblique projection?
side closest to the IR
For AP oblique projections of the chest, the side of interest is generally:
the side closes to the IR
What is the recommended SID for a supine AP chest radiograph?
72 inches
How much should the body be rotated for a PA oblique projection of the sternum?
15 to 20 degrees
Where are the hands placed for a PA projection of the chest?
back of the hands on the hips
How much is the body rotated for the PA oblique projection of the sternoclavicular articulation (body rotation technique)?
10 to 15 degrees
If the patient cannot be placed in the lordotic position for radiography of the pulmonary apices, what is the CR angle that can be used to project the clavicles above the apices?
15 to 20 degrees cephalad
Which of the following is the essential projection and body position for demonstration of the sternum?
PA oblique, RAO
How is the patient's head positioned for a PA projection of one sternoclavicular joint?
turn the head to face the affected side
The costophrenic angle is a part of the:
lungs
Each lung is divided into specific segments called:
lobes
The centra-ray angle for a lateral sternum is:
perpendicular
Which of the following are advantages of using an SID of 72 inches for chest radiography?
1. decreased magnification of the heart
2. sharper outlines of the delicate lung structures
Which of the following projections would be used to demonstrate the sternum on a trauma patient who must remain relatively supine?
AP projection, LPO
The part of the lung that extends above the clavicle is termed the:
apex
Where is the bottom of the IR positioned for an AP projection of the ribs (below the diaphragm)?
at the iliac crest
How far above the top of the shoulders should the IR be positioned for any decubitus position of the chest?
1 1/2 to 2 inches above the shoulders
How far above the shoulders should the IR be positioned for PA and lateral chest radiographs?
1 1/2 to 2 inches
The central ray for a PA projection of the upper ribs is:
0 degrees
Where should the top of the IR be positioned for a PA oblique projection of the lungs?
1 1/2 to 2 inches above the vertebral prominens
What is recommended on how long should the patient remain in position before making the exposure when performing a projection int he lateral or dorsal decubitus position?
5 minutes
The respiratory system proper consists of the:
1. larynx
2. trachea and bronchi
3. both lungs
The space between the two pleural walls is called the:
pleural cavity
The presence of gas or air int he pleural cavity is termed:
pneumothorax
What is the respiration phase for AP or lateral projections of the chest performed in the decubitus position?
full inspiration
Where is the IR centered for a PA oblique sternum?
Seventh thoracic vertebra
How many ribs should be visible above the diaphragm on a PA chest radiograph?
10
Where is the central ray directed for the lateral projection of the cerviothoracic region(simmers technique)?
C7-T1
Where is the central ray directed for an "open mouth" AP projection of the atlas and axis?
perpendicular through the open mouth
How many vertebrae make up the vertebral column?
33
How many thoracic vertebrae have a small concave facet on the transverse process, for articulation with the tubercle of a rib?
10
The central-ray angle for an AP axial cervical vertebrae is:
15 to 20 degrees cehphalad
The part identified in the figure above is the:
pedicle
The intervertebral formina of the thoracic spine form an angle of how many degrees with the midsagittal plane?
90 degrees
The SID for a lateral cervical spine must be a minimum of how many inches?
60 to 72 inches
The swimmer's technique demonstrates the cervicothoracic region in which projection?
lateral
Which intervertebral foramina are demonstrated on an AP axial oblique projection of the cervical spine?
those farthest from the IR
The first cervical vertebra is called the:
atlas
The respiration phase for a lateral cervical spine is:
full expiration
Which of the following describes the Fuchs method?
AP, dens
Where is the center of the IR positioned for the AP projection of the dens, Fuchs method?
tip of the mastoid process
Which of the following methods is used to demonstrate the cericothoracic region in the lateral projection?
2. Swimmers technique
An abnormal increase in the convexity of the thoracic spine is termed:
kyphosis
Where is the central ray centered for a hyperflexion or hyperextension lateral cervical spine?
fourth cervical vertebra
What is the recommended SID for the AP axial oblique projection of the cervical spine?
60 to 72 inches
Which intervertebral foramina and pedicles are demonstrated on an AP axial oblique projection of the cervical spine?
those farthest from the IR
Where should the superior edge of the IR be placed for an AP projection of the thoracic vertebrae?
to 2 inches above the shoulders
How much is the body rotated for an AP axial oblique projection of the cervical intervertebral foramina?
45 degrees
Where should the arms be places for a lateral projection of the thoracic spine?
at right angles to the long axis of the body
What is the central ray angle for an Ap axial oblique projection of the cervical intervertebral foramina?
15 to 20 degrees cephalad
Ideally, the cathode end of an xray tube should be positioned to take advantage of the "heel effect" of the tube. Where should the cathode be placed for an AP thoracic spine?
toward the feet
Where is the IR centered for the lateral projection of the cervicothoracic region(swimmers technique)?
at the C7-T1 interspace
Where is the IR centered for a lateral cervical spine?
fourth cervical vertebra
The swimmer's technique lateral projection is performed to demonstrate the:
cervicothoracic region vertebrae
Which of the following should be performed to place the back in contact with the table for an AP thoracic spine?
1. flex the hips
2. flex the knees
How are small weights applied to the arms for the lateral projection of the cervical spine?
affixed to the wrists
What is the central ray angle for an AP thoracic spine?
0 Degrees
The respiration phase for the "open mouth" AP projection of the atlas and axis is:
softly phonate "ah" during the exposure
How much is the body rotated for a PA axial oblique projection of the cervical intervertebral foramina?
45 degrees
The zygapophyseal joints of the thoracic spine form an angle of how many degrees with the midsagittal plane?
70 to 75 degrees
Which projection of the cervical spine will demonstrate the lower five zygapophyseal joints of the cervical spine?
1. lateral
2. lateral in hyperflexion
3. lateral in hyperextension
The phase of respiration for a hyperflexion or hyperextension lateral cervical spine is:
suspended respiration
The "vertebra prominens" is the name given to the:
seventh cervical vertebra
Which of the following methods is used to demonstrate the dens within the foramen magnum?
Fuchs
Where is the central ray directed for the AP axial oblique projection of the cervical intervertebral foramina?
fourth cervical vertebra
Which of the following are functions of the vertebral column?
1. supports the trunk
2. protects the spinal cord
3. supports the skull superiorly
Which of the following is placed perpendicular to the tabletop for the AP axial cervical vertebrae?
a line drawn from the lower edge of the upper incisors to the tip of the mastoid process
The Grandy method is a(n):
lateral projection of the cervical vertebrae
Where is the IR centered fro an AP axial cervical spine?
fourth cervical vertebra
Where should the center of the IR be positioned for the "open mouth" AP projection of the atlas and axis?
second cervical vertebra
How is the thorax centered for a lateral thoracic spine?
center the posterior half to the center of the grid
What is the central-ray angulation for an AP axial projection of the cervical spine on a trauma patient?
15 to 20 degrees cephalad
The intervertebral foramina of the cervical spine are demonstrated on which of the following projections?
2. AP axial oblique
3. PA axial oblique
If a lead rubber sheet is not placed on the table when performing a lateral projection of the thoracic spine, the image may be:
underexposed
Which of the following lines must be perpendicular to the IR for the AP "open mouth" atlas and axis?
a line drawn from the lower edge of the upper incisors to the tip of the mastoid process
The short, thick processes that project posteriorly on each side of a vertebral body are called the:
pedicles
Patients may arrive in the emergency department with trauma to the neck. Which projection of the cervical spine is performed first, and then reviewed by the physician, before proceeded with other projections?
dorsal decubitus (cross-table) lateral
the vertebral foramen of the first cervical vertebra contains the:
1. dens
3. spinal cord
For which projection is the patient instructed to softly phonate "ah" during the exposure?
AP "open mouth" atlas and axis
Which of the following breathing techniques can be used for a lateral projection of the thoracic vertebrae?
2. suspended respiration
3. quiet breathing
Where is the IR centered for the hyperflexion or hyperextension lateral projection of the cervical spine?
fourth cervical vertebra
For the cervicothoracic region lateral projection (swimmers technique), the recommended position of the humeral head farthest from the IR is:
move posteriorly
Where is the central ray directed for a lateral cervical spine?
fourth cervical vertebra
What is the central ray angulation for the AP projection of the dens, Fuchs method?
0 degrees
The xray projection demonstrated in the figure above is the:
AP, open mouth, atlas, and axis
Where is the central ray directed for a lateral thoracic spine?
level of T7
A fracture at the anterior arch of C2 due to hyperextension is termed a:
hangman's fracture
The intervertebral foramina of the cervical spine open:
45 degrees anteriorly and 15 degrees inferiorly
The zygapophyseal joints of the cervical spine are clearly demonstrated on which projection?
lateral
The recommended SID for a dorsal decubitus (cross-table) lateral projection of the cervical spine on a trauma patient is:
60 to 72 inches
The second cervical vertebra is called the:
axis
The intervertebral foramina of the thoracic spine are clearly demonstrated on which projection?
lateral
Which of the following contrast mediums are used for examinations of the gastrointestinal tract?
1. air
2. barium sulfate
3. water-soluble iodinated solution
The patient "prep" for a morning stomach examination is:
food and fluid are withheld after midnight
What is the recommended general body position for a radiographic series of the esophagus?
recumbent
Which of the following are essential oblique projections of the stomach and duodenum?
1. AP projection, LPO
2. PA projection, RAO
A specific radiographic examination of the biliary ducts is termed:
cholangiography
The part of the stomach identified in the figure below is the:
pyloric antrum
Food and fluid should be withheld for how many hours before a stomach examination?
8
Which of the following are prime considerations in producing an optimal radiograph of the abdomen?
2. explain the breathing procedure to the patient
3. do not start the exposure for 1 to 2 seconds after suspension of respiration
Which of the following planes is positioned to the center of the grid for the lateral projection of the stomach and duodenum?
a plane passing midway between the midcoronal plane and the anterior surface of the abdomen
The routinely used methods of examining the stomach include:
2. single contrast
3. double contrast
Which of the following planes is centered to the grid for the PA oblique projection of the stomach and the duodenum?
a longitudinal plane midway between the vertebrae and the lateral border of the elevated side
A PA projection of the stomach and duodenum can be performed using a 24 x 30 cm IR. Which of the following describes the plane that is centered to the grid for this projection?
a sagittal plane passing halfway between the midline and the lateral border of the abdomen
For which of the following projections of the abdomen is the x-ray beam placed in the horizontal position?
2. PA, upright
3. AP, lateral decubitus
The central ray angulation for an AP abdominal radiograph is:
0 degrees
A properly exposed abdominal radiography will exhibit the:
1. psoas muscles
2. lower border of the liver
3. transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae
What is the respiration phase for an AP or PA abdominal radiograph done in the upright position?
expiration
Which of the following are components of the alimentary canal?
1. mouth and pharynx
2. stomach and intestine
The area idtentified in the figure below is the:
cardiac antrum
The most commonly performed abdominal examination is referred to as a(n):
KUB
One of the primary reasons a left lateral decubitus abdominal radiograph is performed is to demonstrate:
air-fluid levels
Which of the following organs lie in the abdominal cavity?
1. stomach
2. gallbladder
3. kidneys
The degree of body rotation for the PA oblique projection of the stomach will depend on the body habitus. The greatest degree of rotation would be used for which body habitus?
hypersthenic
The expanded portion of the terminal esophagus is called the:
cardiac antrum
For all projections of the esophagus, the top of the IR is positioned at:
the level of the mouth
What is the average degree of body rotation for an AP oblique projection of the stomach and duodenum?
45 degrees
Which projection of the stomach demonstrates its anterior and posterior surfaces?
lateral
Which of the following can be used to record the fluoroscopic image?
1. TV
2. cine
3. video recorder
Which of the following planes is centered to the grid for the lateral projection of the esophagus?
midcoronal plane
What is the degree of body rotation for the PA oblique projection of the esophagus?
35 to 40 degrees
How long does it take barium to go through the alimentary canal and reach the rectum?
24 hours
What is the respiration phase for an AP abdominal radiograph done in the supine position?
expiration
The stomach wall is composed of how many layers?
4
Which of the following are advantages of using recumbent position for radiographs of the esophagus?
1. varices are better filled
3. more complete contrast filling, especially proximal part
At which level is the IR centered for an AP or PA oblique stomach and duodenum?
L1/L2
Where si the center of the IR positioned for an AP abdominal radiograph done in the supine position?
iliac crests
One of the most important technical considerations is gastrointestinal radiography is:
elimination of motion
What is the recommended oblique projection and position for the best demonstration of the esophagus?
PA, RAO
The most common contrast medium used for radiologic examinations of the gastrointestinal tract is:
barium sulfate
Which of the following are the essential projections for an esophagus series?
1. AP or PA
2. lateral
3. PA oblique
How long is the alimentary canal?
30 feet
Which of the following are included as components of the alimentary canal?
1. anus
2. colon
3. esophagus
What is the respiration phase for all radiographic exposures of the stomach and intestines?
expiration
Where is the center of the IR positioned for an AP abdominal radiograph done in the upright position?
2 inches above the iliac crests
Where is the center of the IR positioned for a lateral projection of the abdomen done in the dorsal decubitus position?
2 inches above the iliac crests
For which projection of the stomach would a positioning sponge be used for?
AP oblique
If a patient is unable to stand for an upright AP abdominal radiograph, which position should be used?
left lateral decubitus
The muscle controlling the opening between the stomach and the duodenum is termed the:
pyloric sphincter
How much lower should the IR be positioned when the upright position is used for projections of the stomach?
3 to 6 inches
At which level is the IR centered for a PA projection of the stomach and duodenum?
L1/L2
Which projection of the stomach would best demonstrate a diaphragmatic herniation?
AP, trendelenburg's position
Funcitons of the gallbladder include:
1. storing bile
2. concentrating bile
Functions of the stomach include:
1. storage of food
3. chemical breakdown of food
Which of the following are advantages of using the double contrast technique for examination of the stomach?
2. small lesions are not obscured
3. the mucosal lining of the stomach can be more clearly visualized
The area identified in the figure below is the:
fundus
The degree of body rotation for an AP oblique stomach radiograph ranges from:
30 to 60 degrees
The tecnical factors for an abdominal radiograph should be set to produce:
moderate contrast
During an ERCP, an endoscope is passed into the duodenum under fluoroscopic control. "Spot" radiographs are usually taken of the:
1. pancreatic duct
3. common bile duct
During an operative cholangiogram, the surgeon injects the contrast medium directly into the biliary system. Which of the following projections are typically done during this procedure in surgery?
1. AP
2. AP oblique, RPO
A PA projection of the stomach and duodenum is often performed using a 35x43 cm IR. Which of the following describes the plane that is centered to the grid for this projection?
the midsagittal plane
Which methods are used to administer barium for a radiographic examination of the small intestine?
1. by mouth
2. reflex filling
3. enterclysis
The general term used to describe the surgical procedure of forming an artificial opening to the intestine for the passage of fecal material is:
enterostomy
Which plane is centered to the grid for a lateral projection of the large intestine?
midcoronal plane
What is the length of the large intestine?
5 feet
Which of the following are essential projections for examination of the small intestine?
1. AP
2. PA
The degee of body rotation for and AP oblique projection of the large intestine is:
35 to 45 degrees
Preparation of the intestinal tract for examination of the colon includes:
1. laxatives
2. dietary restrictions
3. cleansing enemas
The central-ray angulation for the AP axial projection for the large intestine is:
30 to 40 degrees cephalad
The area of teh colon identified in the figure below is the:
cecum
The large intestine is made up of a series of pouches called the:
haustra
The respiration phase for all projections of the large intestine is:
suspended respiration
How long is the entire alimentary canal?
30 feet
Which of the following examinations requires the use of time markers on the radiographs?
2. small intestine
The area of the colon identified in the figure below is the:
ascending colon
The widest portion of the small bowel is the:
duodenum
Which of the following radiographs are taken during a single-contrast barium enema?
1. "spot" radiographs
2. "filled" colon radiographs
3. postevacuation radiographs
What is the central ray angulation for the PA axial projection of the large intestine?
30 to 40 degrees caudad
Which position should the patient be placed in to insert the enema tip for a barium enema?
Sims
The contraction waves by which the digestive tube moves its contents toward the rectum are called:
peristalsis
For which body type of body habitus is the large intestine bunched together and positioned very low in the abdomen?
asthenic
The main functions of the large intestine are:
2. reabsorption of fluids
3. elimination of waste products
Which projection of the colon best demonstrates the left colic flexure?
PA oblique, LAO
The entire colon is best demonstrated in which projection?
PA or AP
Which projections will clearly demonstrate the right colic flexure?
2. AP oblique, LPO
3. PA oblique, RAO
Methods of radiographically examining the colon include:
2. single contrast
3. double contrast
The wall of teh small intestine is composed of how many coats?
4
What is the length of the average adult small intestine?
22 feet
Which of the following can be used to record the fluoroscopic image?
1. TV
2. cine
3. video recorders
At what level is the center of the IR positioned for a lateral projection of the rectosigmoid area?
ASIS
Where is the IR centered for delayed radiographs of the small intestine after 30 minutes?
level of the iliac crests
The area of the colon identified in the figure below is the:
sigmoid
Methods of performing a double-contrast barium enema include:
2. single-stage procedure
3. two-stage procedure
The opening between the small intestine and the large intestine is called the:
ileocecal valve
Which projections will clearly demonstrate the descending colon?
1. PA oblique, LAO
2. AP oblique, RPO
The first small intestine radiograph is taken how many minutes after the patient drinks the barium?
15 minutes
"High-density" barium sulfate is used primarily for:
3. double contrast intestine examinations
Where is the IR centered for radiographs of the small intestine that are taken within 30 minutes of drinking the barium?
2 inches above the ileac crests
Which projection of the colon best demonstrates the right colic flexure?
PA oblique, RAO
The PA oblique projection of the colon done in the LAO position clearly demonstrates the:
descending colon
Which of the following is true regarding inflation of the retention balloon for a barium enema?
2. it should be inflated by the radiologist using fluoroscopy
Where is the IR centered for all decubitus projections of the large intestine?
iliac crests
The main functions of the small bowel are:
1. digestion of food
2. absorption of food
The vermiform appendix of the colon is attached to the:
cecum
The majority of AP, PA, and oblique radiographs taken during a barium enema are done on 35x43 cm IRs. Where is the IR centered on the sthenic patients for the majority of these projections?
iliac crests
The wall of the colon is composed of how many layers?
4
What percentage of the population will have a combination of sthenic and hyposthenic body habitus?
85%
The most distal portion of the small intestine is the:
ileum
Which of the following are included as components of the alimentary canal?
1. anus
2. colon
3. esophagus
The area identified in the figure below is the:
pyloric portion
The jejunum and ileum are attached to the posterior wall of the abdomen by the:
mesentery
How far is the enema tip inserted into the rectum for a colon examination?
no more than 4 inches
The small intestine is divided into how many distinct portions?
3
The degre of body rotation for the PA oblique projection (RAO or LAO) of the large intestine is:
35 to 45 degrees
At which plane is the central ray positioned for PA oblique projecitons (LAO or RAO) of the large intestine?
a longitudinal plane 1 to 2 inches lateral to the midline of the body on the elevated side
How far above the anus is the enema bag placed during a barium enema?
18 to 24 inches
The pouchlike portion of the large intestine that is situated below the junction of the ileum and colon is the:
cecum
The patient preparation for a small intestine examination is:
food and fluid withheld after the evening meal and no breakfast
Which of the following demonstrates the rectum and rectosigmoid area in a true axial projection?
3. Chassard-Lapine method
Which projection of the colon best demonstrates the ascending colon?
PA oblique, RAO
Which projections taken during a barium enema will demonstrate the rectosigmoid area?
1. lateral
2. PA axial
3. AP axial
Where is the IR centered for all abdominal radiographs taken during examinations of the urinary system?
iliac crests
Which of the following therapies would be applied if contrast medium infiltrates the surrounding tissues?
2. application of ice if less than 30 minutes
3. application of a warm compress if more than 30 minutes
Before venipuncture, the skin is cleansed in a circular motion. How much of an area is cleansed?
2-inch circle
What type of motion is used to cleanse the skin before venipunture?
circular
Which of the following is considered an operative examination?
retrograde urography
Contraindications for intravenous urography include:
1. anuria
2. renal failure
The urinary system includes the following?
1. urethra
2. two kidneys
A severe reaction to medication or contrast medium would be:
anaphylactic reaction
Which techniuque is used to get contrast medium into the urinary bladder for a cystogram?
retrograde filling technique
The exposure technique used for an IVU should have sufficient contrast and density to clearly demonstrate the:
1. outline of kidneys
2. lower border of the liver
3. lateral margin of the psoas muscle
Where is the IR centered for an AP axial projection of the urinary bladder(cystogram)?
2 inches above the upper border of the symphysis pubis
For which body habitus will the kidneys lie at the highest level?
hypersthenic
A mild reaction to a medication or contrast medium would be:
warmth
Which of the following is true with regard to the use of injection needles for venipuncture?
2. the needles may only be used one time
For which of the following anatomical areas is the retrograde technique used?
1. bladder
2. lower ureters
3. urethra
Which of the following serves as the reservoir for urine?
urinary bladder
When blood or the medication injected into a vessel leaks out, it is called:
extravasation
Which of the following is true regarding the kidneys?
the left kidney is longer and narrower than the right
Preparation of the patient for an IVU includes:
1. a light evening meal
2. a non-gas forming laxative
3. NPO after midnight
Which of the following would indicate contrast medium has infiltrated the surrounding vessels?
1. swelling
2. burning
Within how many minutes does contrast medium appear in the pelvicalyceal system?
2 to 8
The technique of injecting contrast media into a vein and taking radiographs of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder is termed:
intravenous urography
What is the angle of the needle to the skin's surface during venipuncture?
45 degrees
What size IR and which position is used for examination of the urinary bladder (cystogram)?
10x12 inch (24x30) cm lengthwise
In some radiography procedures involving the urinary system, the contrast medium is introduced against the normal flow. This is termed:
retrograde
What is the central-ray angulation for the PA axial urinary bladder?
10 to 15 degrees cephalad
Before venipuncture is performed, the radiologic technologist must assess which of the following:
2. allergic reaction to iodine tincture (if used)
3. adverse reaction to the medication being administered
Where is the compression applied during and IVU?
distal ends of the ureters
Which of the following is ture regarding retrograde urography?
1. the ureters must be catheterized
2. provides little physiologic information
3. contrast is injected directly into the pelvicalyceal system
The organ identified in the figure below is the:
left kidney
The most common cause of contrast medium leaking out of a vessel and infiltrating the surrounding tissues is:
needle displacement
Which plane is centered to the grid for a lateral projection during a cystogram?
the midcoronal plane
During venipuncture, how far above the site of the puncture is the tourniquet placed?
6 to 8 inches
Guidlines from which of the following organizations must be adhered to with regard to venipuncture administration?
1. professional society (ASRT)
2. state agencies
3. the institution
How much urine is excreted by the kidneys each day?
1 to 2L
What is the central-ray angle for the AP oblique projections of the urinary system?
0 degrees
Which projection would place the right kidney perpendicular to the IR?
AP oblique, RPO
The respiration phase for radiographs made during intravenous urography is:
suspended expiration
Where do the ureters enter the bladder?
posterior wall
How much fluid can the adult bladder hold?
500 mL
Compression should not be used during an IVU if the patient has:
2. an aneurysm
3. a colostomy
Functions of the kidney include:
1. removing waste products from the blood
2. maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance
2. 3. secreting substances that affect blood pressure
The radiologic technologist may initiate venipuncture and administer contrast of the order of:
1. any physician
Which of the following is true regarding nonionic contrast media?
1. cost is higher
2. less likely to cause a reaction
The common reactions to contrast media include:
1. warmth
2. flushing
The concentration of iodine in ionic contrast media is:
50 to 70%
The vessels most often used for venipuncture are found on the:
1. anterior forearm
2. posterior hand
A radiographic examination of the urinary bladder is termed:
cystography
How much will the kidneys drop in the change from the supine to the upright position?
2 inches
The series of radiographs made during an IVU examination are typically done at time intervals between:
3 and 20 minutes
The antiseptic used to cleanse the skin before venipuncture should remain of the skin for:
30 seconds
The abbreviation for the excretory technique of urography is:
IVU
IV medications are administered via the:
venous system
The vast majority of all reactions to contrast media occur within how many minutes after injection?
5
After the needle enters the skin during venipuncture, the angle of the needle is reduced how many degrees to the long axis of the vessel?
15 degrees
How many minutes after injection does the greatest concentration of contrast medium appear in the kidneys?
15 to 20
Which of the following is true regarding positioning of the abdomen for a lateral projection of the urinary system?
the midcoronal plane is centered to the grid
The center of the compression device that is placed over the lower ureters during intravenous urography is positioned?
at the level of the ASIS
The cup-shaped recesses in the center of each kidney that receive the urine from all collecting ducts are called the:
calyces
Which of the following must be available during an IVU?
2. radiologist
3. emergency cart
The respiration phase for all exposures made during and IVU is:
expiration
Which of the following projections are used during a cystogram?
1. AP
2. AP oblique
3. lateral
What is the central-ray angulation for the AP axial urinary bladder?
10 to 15 degrees caudad
How much is the body rotated for the AP oblique projection of the urinary bladder during a cystogram?
40 to 60 degrees
The area of the kidney identifed in the figure below is the:
renal pelvis
How long is the urethra in the female?
1 1/2 inches
A moderate reaction to a medication or contrast medium would be:
vomiting
The radiographic examination of the urethra is called:
cystourethrography
Significant reactions to contrast media include:
1. nausea
2. vomiting
3. edema of the respiratory mucous membrane
Where is the central ray centered for a lateral projection of facial bones?
halfway between the outer canthus and the EAM
The most effective way to protect the patient from unnecessary radiation during sinus radiography is to use:k
2. proper collimation
The x-ray projection demonstrated in the figure below is the:
SMV
The central-ray angulation for the reverse Waters method is:
0 degrees
The part of the mandible identified in the figure below is the:
body
At which level should the central ray enter the base of the skull for the SMV projection of the sinuses?
3/4 inch anterior to the level of the EAM
The bones of the cranium are joined together by fibrous joints called:
sutures
The OML forms an angle of how many degrees from the plane of the IR for an open-mouth parietoacanthial (waters method) projection?
37 degrees
The external landmark identified in the figure below is the:
outer canthus
How many bones are contained int he skull?
22
The central ray and center of the IR position for a lateral projection of the skull is:
2 inchea above the EAM
At what age are all the sinuses completely developed?
18
For a lateral projection of the facial bones, the central ray will enter:
halfway between the outer canthus and the EAM
Which facial bones are clearly demonstrated on the parietocanthial projection (Waters method)?
1. orbits
2. maxillae
3. zygomatic arches
The part of the frontal bone indicated in the figure below is the:
glabella
The lateral projection of the facial bones clearly demonstrates the:
all facial bones in their entirety
Patients who are having an examination of the paranasal sinuses should always be examined in the upright position to:
1. demonstrate the presence or absence of fluid
2. differentiate between fluid and other pathological conditions
At which level will the central ray be placed for the SMV projection of the zygomatic arches?
at the level 1 inch posterior to the outer canthi
What type of joint is the TMJ?
synovial-hinge and gliding
The respiration phase for all projections of the facial bones and sinuses is:
suspended
Which of the following is true regarding the placement of the IR for an AP axial (Towne) projection of the skull?
1. its upper margin is at the level of the top of the cranium
The parietoacanthial projection of the facial bones is commonly called the:
Waters method
The central-ray angle for the PA axial (Caldwell) projection of the skull is:
15 degrees caudad
The small bone situated at the base of the tongue is the:
hyoid
To successfully demonstrate the ethmoidal and sphenoidal sinuses on the SMV projection, which of the following must occur?
2. the infraorbitomeatal line must be parallel with the IR
3. the central ray must be perpendicular to the infraorbitomeatal line and horizontal
Which parts of the patients face touch the table for PA axial projection (Caldwell method)?
1. forehead
2. nose
The central ray forms an angle of how many degrees with the OML for the PA axial (Caldwell) projection of the sinuses?
15 degrees
The sinus identified in the figure below is the:
maxillary
Which part of the patient's face is touching the upright bucky, or table, for a parietoacanthial projection (waters method)?
chin
The topographic line identified in the figure below is the:
infraorbitomeatal line
The largest sinus is the:
maxillary
The landmark identified in the figure below is termed the:
nasion
Which of the following is centered to the IR for a parietoacanthial projection of the facial bones?
acanthion
The bone indicated in the figure below is the:
parietal
If the infraorbitomeatal line is placed perpendicular to the IR during an AP axial (Towne) projection of the skull, how much is the central ray angled?
37 degrees caudad
For a lateral projection of the paranasal sinuses the central ray is directed:
1 inch posterior to the outer canthus
The central-ray angulation for the parietoorbital (Rhese) projection of the optic canal is:
0 degrees
What is the central-ray anglulation for the SMV projection?
0 degrees
Which drawing in the figure below demonstrates the correct head position for the Waters method?
left
Which projections will demonstrate the ethmoidal sinuses?
1. lateral
2. PA axial (caldwell)
3. SMV
The sinus identified in the figure below is the:
sphenoidal
For the waters method, the orbitomeatal line is places at what angle to the IR?
37 degrees
Which of the following bones contain air sinuses?
1. ethmoid
2. frontal
3. sphenoid
The larges and most dense bone of the face is the:
mandible
The parietocanthal projection (Waters method) of the sinuses requires the orbitomeatal line to be places how many degrees from the plane of the IR?
37 degrees
The landmark identified in the figure below is the:
acanthion
The figure below demonstrates the:
Waters method
Which of the following is true regarding the lateral projection of the nasal bones?
1. occlusal IR may be used
2. both sides are done for comparison
3. the interpupillary line is perpendicular to the tabletop
The six areas of the incomplete ossification in a newborn infants skull are called the:
fontanels
How many bones make up the face?
14
The topographic line shown in the figure below is the:
orbitomeatal line
The bone identified in the figure below is the:
maxilla
Where is the IR centered for the AP axial projection of the zygomatic arches?
mandibular angles
When using the angled grid technique for the PA axial (Caldwell method) projections of the sinuses, the vertical grid device must be angled:
15 degrees
How many bones make up the cranium?
8
The bone indicated in the figure below is the:
zygoma
Which of the following are included as functions of the sinuses?
1. decrease of weight of the skull
2. warm and moisten inhaled air
3. provide a resonating chamber for voice
The portion of the mandible identified in the figure below is the:
ramus
Which of the following would be demonstrated in the projeciton shown in the figure below?
optic canal
Which method of examining the skull is identified in the figure below?
Towne
Which of the following will be demonstrated on the AP portable chest?
1. thorax
2. heart
3. diaphragmatic domes
For a portable chest, a grid cassette can be used
depending on patient size or institutional policy
For a portable AP chest, the CR should be directed
perpendicular to the long axis of the sternum and the center of the IR, 3 inches below the jugular notch at the level of T7
How many xray exposures can be made on a fully charged mobile xray machine?
10 to 15
An advantage of using a cpacitor-dishcarge mobile unit would be:
1. small size
3. ease of movement around the hospital
The central ray must be centered within how many inches of the midline of the grid to avoid cutoff?
1 1/2 inches
Most grids used for mobile radiography have ratios of:
6:1 or 8:1
The anode heel effect is an important consideration in mobile radiography. Which of the following will produce a more pronounced heel effect?
1. short SID
2. large field size
To keep exposure times to a minimum during mobile radiography, the recommended SID should be:
40 inches
Which of the following should be available on every mobile radiography machine?
1. lead apron
2. radiographic technique chart
3. measuring caliper
During a mobile exposure, the radiographer should be how far from the object being radiographed?
6 feet
During mobile radiography, the radiographer ideally should be standing at what degree of angle from the primary beam?
90 degrees
During mobile radiography, the least amount of scattered radiation will occur at what angle to the object being radiographed?
90 degrees
The single most effective means of radiation protection during mobile radiography is:
distance
During mobile radiography, shielding should be used on:
1. children
2. women of reproductive age
3. patients of reproductive age
According to federal regulations, the source to skin (SSD) distance during mobile radiography may not be less than?
12 inches
Which of the following attire is worn by the radiographer when entering a strict isolation room for a mobile radiography examination?
1. mask
2. gown
3. gloves
Which of the following attire is worn by the radiographer if a patient has drainage secretion precautions?
3. gloves
How long should the patient lie in the decubitus position before making the exposure during a mobile decubitus chest examination?
5 minutes
For which mobile examinations is the cathode of the x-ray places toward the head of the patient?
1. AP abdomen
2. AP and lateral femur
Which of the following preliminary steps should the radiographer perform before beginning a mobile x-ray examination?
2. introduce oneself to the patient and family
3. determine that the correct patient is in the room