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Chapter 2 - Sociological Investigation

STUDY
PLAY
science
the study of society based on systematic observation of social behavior
empirical evidence
information we can verify with our senses
scientific sociology
the study of society based on systematic observation of social behavior
concept
a mental construct that represents some part of the world in a simplified form
variable
a concept whose value changes from case to case
measurement
a procedure for determining the value of a variable in a specific case
operationalize a variable
specifying exactly what is to be measured before assigning a value to a variable
reliability
consistency in measurement
validity
actually measuring exactly what you intend to measure
cause and effect
a relationship in which change in one variable causes change in another
independent variable
the variable that causes the change
dependent variable
the variable that changes
correlation
A relationship in which two (or more) variables change together
spurious correlation
An apparent but false relationship between two (or more) variables that is caused by some other variable
control
holding constant all variables except one in order to see clearly the effect of that variable
objectivity
personal neutrality in conducting research
replication
repetition of research by other investigators
interpretive sociology
the study of society that focuses on the meanings people attach to their social world
critical sociology
the study of society that focuses on the need for social change
gender
the personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being female or male
research method
a systematic plan for doing research
experiment
a research method for investigating cause and effect under highly controlled conditions
hypothesis
a statement of a possible relationship between two (or more) variables
Hawthorne effect
a change in a subject's behavior caused simply by the awareness of being studied
survey
a research method in which subjects respond to a series of statements or questions in a questionnaire or an interview
population
the people who are the focus of research
sample
a part of a population that represents the whole
questionnaire
a series of written questions a researcher presents to subjects
interview
a series of questions a researcher asks respondents in person
participant observation
a research method in which investigators systematically observe people while joining them in their routine activities
inductive logical thought
reasoning that transforms specific observations into general theory
deductive logical thought
reasoning that transforms general theory into specific hypotheses suitable for testing