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psychology chapter 11 personality

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Fredu's theory
believed that we are strongly influenced by uncousicious thoughts and feelings. and three concepts explain adult personality; id;ego;supergo
Id
a form reffering to biological compelling drives that yeild pleasure when satisfied
ego
the freudian structure of personality that deals with te demands of reality. tries to bring individual pleasure within the norms of society
superego
the freudian structure of personality that harshly judges morality of our behavior
defense mechanisms
the ego's protective methods for reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
six differn't types of defense mechanism
repression, rationalization, displacement, projection, regression, reaction formation
repression
the master defense mechanism; the ego pushes unacceptable impulses out of awareness, back into hte unconscious mind.
rationalization
the ego replaces a less acceptable motive with a more acceptable one. example : college student dont get into fraternity of his choice and he said if he tried harder he would have goton in
displacement
the ego shifts feeling toward an unacceptable object to another, more acceptable object. example: woman can't take anger on boss so she go home and take it out on husband
projection
the ego attributes personal shortcomings, problems, and faults to others example: a man who has a strong desire to have an extramerital affair accuesses his wife of flirting with other men.
regression
the ego seeks the sercurity of an earlier developmental period in the face of stress. example: a women returns homeot mother everytime her fights with husband
reaction formation
the ego transforms an unacceptable motive into its opposite example: woman who fears fer sexual urges becomes a religious zealot
conscious-uncouscious
refers to the iceberg. where part is floating is conscious and the part summerged totally is unconscious. the Id is uncounscious where the ego and superego can operate at eigther the conscious or unconscious level
psychosexual stages
the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones
oral stage
first 18 months - infan'ts pleasure cneters on the mouth. gratification of dependency on needs
anal stage
18-36 months. eventual acceptance of moral rules as an outcome, in large part, of experinces during toilet training. greatest pleasure involes anus and uretha and the eliminative functions associated with them.
phallic stage
3-6 years child develops sexual attraction toward opposite sex parent. fear of retaliation by same sex parent leads to psychological identification with same sex parent. emergence of gender identity. pleasure focuss on penis. this stage triggers oedipus complex
genital stage
emergence of adult sexuality
oedipus complex
in freud's theory during the phallic stage, a yong boy's intense desire to replace his father and enjoy the affection of his mother but fears of castration and identifies with his father, striving to be like him.
electra complex
in freud's theory during the phallic stage , female experience "castration completed" resulting in penis envy- the intense desire to obtain a penis by eventually marrying and bearing a son.
trait theories
theories stating that personality consistof broad, enduring dispositions (traits) that tend to lead to characteristc responses.
Big five
the "supertraits" that are though to describe the main dimensions of personality - specifically, neuroticism (emotional instability), extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness.
agreeableness
cooperative, trusting , modest
neuroticism
(negative emotionally) anxious, hostile
extraversion
(positve emotionally) sociable, upbeat
openness to experience
(imaginative vs. practical) curious, creative
conscientiousness
(constraint) diligent, well-organized, dependable
cross situational consistency
person should behave consistenly in differnt situations.
MMPI
(minnesota multiphasic personality inventory) the most widely used and researched empirically keyed self-report personality test. originally developed as an aid in diagnosing psychiatric disorders; two versions-adult and adolescent. also used to predict which individuals will make the best job candidates and which career an individual should pursue.
projectve test
personality assessment tool that presents individuals with an ambiguous stimulus and then asks them to describe it or tell a story about it - in other words, to project their own meaning onto it.
thematic apperception test (TAT)
a projectve test designed to elicit stories that reveal something about an individual's personality.
roschach inkblot test
most famous projective test that uses an individual's perception of inkblots to determine his or her personality. not a valid test
Type A personality
A cluster of charactersitic - such as being excessively competitive, hard-driven, impatient, and hostile - related to the incidence of heart disease
type B personality
a cluster of charactersitics - such as being relaxed and easy going- realted to good health.
16 personality factors
Cattell; personality boils down to 16 basic dimensions of personality; questionnaire used in universities and businesses for personnel selection and research