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Guide to Operating systems 5th edition Chapter 1 KEY TERMS
Terms in this set (44)
application program interface (API)
Functions or programming features in an operating system that programmers can use for network links, links to messaging services, or interfaces to other systems.
A word processor, spreadsheet, database, computer game, or other type of application that a user runs on a computer.
basic input/output system (BIOS)
Low-level program code that conducts basic hardware and software communications inside the computer.
A computing style frequently employed by large systems. A request for a series of processes is submitted to the computer; information is displayed or printed with complete.
Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC)
An English-like computer programming language originally designed as a teaching tool, but which evolved into a useful and relatively powerful development language.
A large box with slots, also provides cooling fans, electrical power, connection to a shared monitor and pointing device, and even network connectivity.
Unit that looks like a card that fits into a blade enclosure.
A computer hardware and software design in which different portions of an application execute on different computers, or on different components of a single computer.
A computing technology that provides a host of scalable Web-based application and services over the Internet or a private network used by clients through Web browsers.
Enables the user to display a command line from which to enter commands.
Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)
A type of memory that stores a computer's BIOS configuration.
A series of instruction executed by the computer's CPU.
A computer hardware and software design in which the operating system temporarily hands off control to an application and waits for the application to return control to the operating system.
desktop operating system
A computer operating system that is typically installed on a PC, usually used by one person at a time, and may or may not be connected to a network.
Computer software designed to provide the operating system and application software access to specific computer hardware.
An issuance of UNIX or Linux that is based on a standard kernel, but that also has customizations added by a particular private or commercial development group.
A computer that has a dedicated function within a larger system, such as a piece of machinery
The method by which an OS stores and organizes files and manages access to files on a storage device.
Graphical user interface (GUI)
An interface between the user and an operating system that presents information in an intuitive graphical format, including multiple colors, figures, icons, window, toolbars, and other features.
The physical devices in a computer, including the CPU, circuit boards (cards), disk drives, monitor and modem.
Input is information taken in b a computer device to handle or process. Output is information sent out by a computer device after the information is handles or processed.
An essential set of programs and computer code built into a computer operating system to control processor, disk, memory, and other functions central to a computer's basic operation.
Microsoft Disk Operating System (MS-DOS)
The first widely distributed operating system for microcomputers, created by Tim Paterson and a team at Microsoft that included Bill Gates. This generic computer code was used to control many basic computer hardware and software functions.
A technique that allows a computer to run two or more programs at the same time.
running several program processes or parts (threads) at the same time.
a computer hardware and software system designed to service multiple users who access the computer's hardware and software applications simultaneously
Operating system (OS)
A specialized computer program that provides a user interface, file system, service, and kernel to a computer.
power-on self test (POST)
Tests, such as memory and hardware component tests, that are run by the BIOS when a computer starts and that must complete before the operating system is loaded.
A computer hardware and software design for multitasking of applications in which the operating system retains control of the computer at all times.
A program that is loaded into memory and run by the CPU. It can be an application a user interacts with, such as a word-processing program or a Web browser, or a program with no user interface that communicates with other processes and provides services to them.
CPU boxes mounted in racks that can hold multiple servers, each with it's own power cord and network connection- and often share one monitor and pointing device.
Read-only memory (ROM)
Memory that contains information that is not erased when the power is removed from the memory hardware.
Real-time operating system (RTOS)
An operating system that receives and processes inputs and produces the required outputs in a specified amount of time.
Programs that manage computer memory and CPU use.
A computer processing style in which each operation is submitted, acted upon, and the results displayed before the next process is started.
server operating system
A computer operating system usually found on more powerful PC-based computers than those used for desktop operating systems.
A process that runs in the background because there is no user interface.
An interface that enables users to interact with an operating system kernel.
A computer hardware and software design that can manage only a single task at a time
A computer hardware and software system that enables only one user to access its resources at a particular time
A computer that has extreme processing power and speed to handle complex computations that are beyond the reach of other computers
A hybrid between single-tasking and multitasking that permits the user or application software to switch among multiple single-tasking operations
A central computer system, such as a mainframe, that is used by multiple users and applications simultaneously
A component of an operating system that provides a method for users to interact with the computer, usually with a keyboard and mouse or touch screen
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