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a persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information

Memory requires?

Encoding, storage, and retrieval


involves modification of information to fit the preferred format of the memory system


Involves retention of encoded material over time

Access of retrieval

involves the location and recovery of information from memory

How should I study for exams

Encode with meaning, use visual imagery. use chunking , use hierarchies

sensory memory

the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system

long term memory

the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences

short tem memory

activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number


one must reproduce previously presented information


one must identify present stimuli as having been previously presented

working memory

a newer understanding of short tem memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual spatial information, and of information retrieved from long term memory

Memory moves through stages

sensory memory, short term/working memory, long term memory

sensory memory function

briefly holds information that will move to working memory

sensory memory storage capacity

12-16 items

sensory memory duration

1/4 second

sensory memory structure

separate sensory registers for each sense

Working memory function

involved with attention, meaning and associations

working memory storage capacity

7 items

working memory duration

20-30 seconds

working memory structure

central executive, phonological loop, sketchpad

long term memory function

storage of information

long term memory storage capacity


long term memory storage capacity structure

procedural memory, declarative memory

automatic processing

unconscious encoding of incidental information

effortful processing

encoding that requires attention and conscious effort


the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in conciseness or to encode it for storage

spacing effect

the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice

serial position effect

our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list


mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing especially when combined with encoding


memory aids, especially those techniques that used vivid imagery and organizational devices


organizing items into familiar manageable units often occurs automatically

iconic memory

a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli

echoic memory

a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli

long term potentiation (LTP)

an increase in a synapses firing potential after brief rapid stimulation. believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory

flashbulb memory

a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event


the loss of memory

implicit memory

retention independent of conscious recollection

explicit memory

memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare


a neural center that is located in the limbic system, helps process explicit memory for storage

multiple choice test questions test on


fill in the blank questions test



a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time


the activation, often unconsciously of particular associations in memory

deja vu

the eerie sense that "I've experienced this before"

mood congruent memory

the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with ones current good or bad mood

rehearsal, the conscious repetition of information a person wants to remember, is part of

effortful processing

when tested immediately after viewing a list of words, people tend to recall the first and last items more readily than those n the middle. when retested after a delay, they are most likely to recall

the first item on the list

memory aids that use visual imagery peg words or other organizational devices are called

acoustic clues

sensory information is initially recorded in our sensory memory. This memory may be visual (_____) or auditory(_____)

iconic, echoic

proactive interference

the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information

retroactive interference

the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information


in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety arousing thoughts feelings and memories

source amnesia

attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about or imagined. At the heart of many false memories

Improving memory

study repeatedly, make the material meaningful, activate retrieval cues, use mnemonic devices, minimize interference, sleep more, test your own knowledge

when forgetting is due to encoding failure, meaningless information has not been transferred from...

short term memory into long term memory

Ebbinghaus forgetting curve shows that after an initial decline, memory for novel information tends to

level out

the hour before sleep is a good time to memorize information because going to sleep after learning new material minimizes

retroactive interference

Freud proposed that painful or unacceptable memories are self censored, or blocked from consciousness, through a mechanism called


on reason false memories form is our tendency to fill in memory gaps with our assumptions about events. This tendency is an example of

the misinformation effect

we may recognize a face in the crowd but be unable to recall where we know the person from. this is an example of

source amnesia


a methodical logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem


a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently, usually speedier but also more error prone


a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem

confirmation bias

a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence


the inability to see a problem from a new perspective by employing a different mental set

mental set

a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past

representativeness heuristic

judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent or match particular prototypes, may lead us to ignore other relevant information

availability heuristic

estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory


the tendency to be more confident than correct, to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments

belief perseverance

clinging to ones initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited


an effortless immediate automatic feeling or thought as contrasted with explicit conscious reasoning


the way an issue is posed, how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments

A concept is

a mental grouping of similar things

the most systematic procedure for solving a problems

is an algorithm

a major obstacle to problem solving is fixation which is a

inability to view a problem from a new perspective

You notice that your new next door neighbor is very neatly dressed , wears glasses and is reading a Greek play. Given the choice between her being a librarian and a store clerk, you incorrectly guess that she is a librarian. You were probably lead astray by

by the representativeness heuristic

after the 9/11 attacks by foreign born terrorists, some observers initially assumed that the 2003 East coast blackout was probably also the work of foreign born terrorist. this assumption illustrates

illustrates the availability heuristic

when consumers respond more positively to ground beef described as "75% lean" than the same product labeled "25 % fat", they have been influenced by

by framing


our spoken, written or signed words and the way we combine them to communicate meaning

babbling stage

beginning at about 4 months, the stage or speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to household language

one-word stage

the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2 during which a child speaks mostly in single words

two word stage

beginning about age 2 the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two word statements

telegraphic speech

early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram "go car" using mostly nouns and verbs

linguistic determinism

Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think

Children reach the one word stage of speech development at about

1 year

Skinner's view that we learn language the same way we learn other behaviors through association imitation and reinforcement is most helpful in explaining

why children learn their household's language

According to Chomsky, children are born with a readiness to learn the grammatical rules of language and all they need to acquire language is

exposure to some language in early childhood

Our language influences the way we perceive and think about her world. This idea adapted from Whorf's hypothesis helps explain why

children have a build in readiness to learning grammatical rule

The problem solving behaviors that most closely resembled insight was

Loulis the chimpanzee's ability to learn signs by observing Washoe.


mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience solve problems and use knowledge to adapt to new situations

general intelligence (G)

a factor that according to Spearman and others , underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test

Factor analysis

a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items on a test used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie a person's total score

savant syndrome

a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill

Five components of creativity

expertise, imaginative thinking skills, a venturesome personality, intrinsic motivation and a creative environment

emotional intelligence

the ability to perceive understand, manage, and used emotions

intelligence test

a method for assessing an individual's mental aptitude and comparing them with those of others using numerical scores

mental age

a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet, the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance.


the widely used American revision

intelligence quotient (Q)

defined originally as the ration of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100

Wechsler Ault Intelligence Scale (WAIS)

the most widely used intelligence test, contains verbal and performance subtest


defining meaningful scores by comparison with performance of pretested group

normal curve

the symmetrical bell shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes.


the extent to which a test yields consistent results as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test or on retesting


the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to

content validity

the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest

predictive validity

the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predicts, it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior


the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to gens.

stereotype threat

a self confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype

The existence of savant syndrome- limited mental ability combined with an exceptional specific skill- seems to support

Gardner's theory of multiple intelligence

Sternberg's three aspects of intelligence are

academic, practical and creative

Emotionally intelligent people tend to

succeed in their careers


a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior


a complex that s rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned

drive-reduction theory

the idea that a physiological need creatures an aroused tension state


a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state, the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry


a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior

hierarchy of needs

Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher levels safety needs and then psychological needs become active


the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues, when its level is low we feel hungry

set point

the point at which an individuals 'weight thermostat' is supposedly set

basal metabolic rate

the body's resting rate of energy expenditure

Today's evolutionary psychology shares an idea that was an underlying assumption of instinct theory. That idea is that

genes predispose species-typical behavior

____________ theory attempts to explain behavior that do NOT reduce physiological needs


The effects of external incentives such as the smell of baking bread are best explained in terms of

individual learning histories

sexual response cycle

the four stages of sexual responding described by Master and Johnson-excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution

refectory period

a resting period after orgasm , during which a an cannot achieve another orgasm

sexual disorder

a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning

3 sexual motivations

social-cultural influence, psychological influence, and biological influence

sexual orientation

an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's attraction toward member of either the same or other sex


a response of the whole organism involving physiological arousal expressive behaviors and consciously experienced thoughts and feelings

James-Lange theory

the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion arousing stimuli

Cannon-Bard Theory

the theory that an emotion arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers physiological response and the subjective experience of emotion

two factor theory

the Schachter-Singer theory that to experience emotion one must be physically aroused and cognitively label the arousal


emotional release

feel good, do good phenomenon

people's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood

subjective well being

self perceived happiness or satisfaction with life

Selye's general adaptation syndrome consist of an alarm reaction followed by

resistance then exhaustion

Researchers suggest that the most significant sources of stress are

daily hassles

What is a good test

standardization, reliability, and validity

Types of intelligence

analytical, creative, practical and emotional

Maslow's Hierarchy of needs

physiological, safety, belonging/love, esteem and self actualization

Motivations for eating

biological factors and psychological factors

eating disorders affect

educate, affluent, females, high correlation with obsessive compulsive disorder and depression

biological factors

testosterone, estrogen, and pheromones

three components of emotions

physiological, cognitive and behavioral


subjective experience of emotion follows bodily arousal


arousal and emotion occur simultaneously

Schachter's Two factor

arousal and label or interpretation produced by emotion

Type A personality

competitive hard working impatient and anger prone person

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