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Psychology Mod. 20-29

STUDY
PLAY
Memory
a persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information
Memory requires?
Encoding, storage, and retrieval
Encoding
involves modification of information to fit the preferred format of the memory system
Storage
Involves retention of encoded material over time
Access of retrieval
involves the location and recovery of information from memory
How should I study for exams
Encode with meaning, use visual imagery. use chunking , use hierarchies
sensory memory
the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
long term memory
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences
short tem memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number
recall
one must reproduce previously presented information
recognition
one must identify present stimuli as having been previously presented
working memory
a newer understanding of short tem memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual spatial information, and of information retrieved from long term memory
Memory moves through stages
sensory memory, short term/working memory, long term memory
sensory memory function
briefly holds information that will move to working memory
sensory memory storage capacity
12-16 items
sensory memory duration
1/4 second
sensory memory structure
separate sensory registers for each sense
Working memory function
involved with attention, meaning and associations
working memory storage capacity
7 items
working memory duration
20-30 seconds
working memory structure
central executive, phonological loop, sketchpad
long term memory function
storage of information
long term memory storage capacity
unlimited
long term memory storage capacity structure
procedural memory, declarative memory
automatic processing
unconscious encoding of incidental information
effortful processing
encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
rehearsal
the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in conciseness or to encode it for storage
spacing effect
the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
serial position effect
our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
imagery
mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing especially when combined with encoding
mnemonics
memory aids, especially those techniques that used vivid imagery and organizational devices
chunking
organizing items into familiar manageable units often occurs automatically
iconic memory
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli
echoic memory
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli
long term potentiation (LTP)
an increase in a synapses firing potential after brief rapid stimulation. believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory
flashbulb memory
a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
amnesia
the loss of memory
implicit memory
retention independent of conscious recollection
explicit memory
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare
hippocampus
a neural center that is located in the limbic system, helps process explicit memory for storage
multiple choice test questions test on
recognition,
fill in the blank questions test
recall
relearning
a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
priming
the activation, often unconsciously of particular associations in memory
deja vu
the eerie sense that "I've experienced this before"
mood congruent memory
the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with ones current good or bad mood
rehearsal, the conscious repetition of information a person wants to remember, is part of
effortful processing
when tested immediately after viewing a list of words, people tend to recall the first and last items more readily than those n the middle. when retested after a delay, they are most likely to recall
the first item on the list
memory aids that use visual imagery peg words or other organizational devices are called
acoustic clues
sensory information is initially recorded in our sensory memory. This memory may be visual (_____) or auditory(_____)
iconic, echoic
proactive interference
the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
retroactive interference
the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
repression
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety arousing thoughts feelings and memories
source amnesia
attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about or imagined. At the heart of many false memories
Improving memory
study repeatedly, make the material meaningful, activate retrieval cues, use mnemonic devices, minimize interference, sleep more, test your own knowledge
when forgetting is due to encoding failure, meaningless information has not been transferred from...
short term memory into long term memory
Ebbinghaus forgetting curve shows that after an initial decline, memory for novel information tends to
level out
the hour before sleep is a good time to memorize information because going to sleep after learning new material minimizes
retroactive interference
Freud proposed that painful or unacceptable memories are self censored, or blocked from consciousness, through a mechanism called
repression
on reason false memories form is our tendency to fill in memory gaps with our assumptions about events. This tendency is an example of
the misinformation effect
we may recognize a face in the crowd but be unable to recall where we know the person from. this is an example of
source amnesia
algorithm
a methodical logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem
heuristic
a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently, usually speedier but also more error prone
insight
a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem
confirmation bias
a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence
fixation
the inability to see a problem from a new perspective by employing a different mental set
mental set
a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
representativeness heuristic
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent or match particular prototypes, may lead us to ignore other relevant information
availability heuristic
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory
overconfidence
the tendency to be more confident than correct, to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments
belief perseverance
clinging to ones initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
intuition
an effortless immediate automatic feeling or thought as contrasted with explicit conscious reasoning
framing
the way an issue is posed, how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments
A concept is
a mental grouping of similar things
the most systematic procedure for solving a problems
is an algorithm
a major obstacle to problem solving is fixation which is a
inability to view a problem from a new perspective
You notice that your new next door neighbor is very neatly dressed , wears glasses and is reading a Greek play. Given the choice between her being a librarian and a store clerk, you incorrectly guess that she is a librarian. You were probably lead astray by
by the representativeness heuristic
after the 9/11 attacks by foreign born terrorists, some observers initially assumed that the 2003 East coast blackout was probably also the work of foreign born terrorist. this assumption illustrates
illustrates the availability heuristic
when consumers respond more positively to ground beef described as "75% lean" than the same product labeled "25 % fat", they have been influenced by
by framing
language
our spoken, written or signed words and the way we combine them to communicate meaning
babbling stage
beginning at about 4 months, the stage or speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to household language
one-word stage
the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2 during which a child speaks mostly in single words
two word stage
beginning about age 2 the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two word statements
telegraphic speech
early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram "go car" using mostly nouns and verbs
linguistic determinism
Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think
Children reach the one word stage of speech development at about
1 year
Skinner's view that we learn language the same way we learn other behaviors through association imitation and reinforcement is most helpful in explaining
why children learn their household's language
According to Chomsky, children are born with a readiness to learn the grammatical rules of language and all they need to acquire language is
exposure to some language in early childhood
Our language influences the way we perceive and think about her world. This idea adapted from Whorf's hypothesis helps explain why
children have a build in readiness to learning grammatical rule
The problem solving behaviors that most closely resembled insight was
Loulis the chimpanzee's ability to learn signs by observing Washoe.
intelligence
mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience solve problems and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
general intelligence (G)
a factor that according to Spearman and others , underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test
Factor analysis
a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items on a test used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie a person's total score
savant syndrome
a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill
Five components of creativity
expertise, imaginative thinking skills, a venturesome personality, intrinsic motivation and a creative environment
emotional intelligence
the ability to perceive understand, manage, and used emotions
intelligence test
a method for assessing an individual's mental aptitude and comparing them with those of others using numerical scores
mental age
a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet, the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance.
Stanford-Binet
the widely used American revision
intelligence quotient (Q)
defined originally as the ration of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100
Wechsler Ault Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
the most widely used intelligence test, contains verbal and performance subtest
standardization
defining meaningful scores by comparison with performance of pretested group
normal curve
the symmetrical bell shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes.
reliability
the extent to which a test yields consistent results as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test or on retesting
validity
the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to
content validity
the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest
predictive validity
the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predicts, it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior
heritability
the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to gens.
stereotype threat
a self confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype
The existence of savant syndrome- limited mental ability combined with an exceptional specific skill- seems to support
Gardner's theory of multiple intelligence
Sternberg's three aspects of intelligence are
academic, practical and creative
Emotionally intelligent people tend to
succeed in their careers
motivation
a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
instinct
a complex that s rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned
drive-reduction theory
the idea that a physiological need creatures an aroused tension state
homeostasis
a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state, the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry
incentive
a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
hierarchy of needs
Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher levels safety needs and then psychological needs become active
glucose
the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues, when its level is low we feel hungry
set point
the point at which an individuals 'weight thermostat' is supposedly set
basal metabolic rate
the body's resting rate of energy expenditure
Today's evolutionary psychology shares an idea that was an underlying assumption of instinct theory. That idea is that
genes predispose species-typical behavior
____________ theory attempts to explain behavior that do NOT reduce physiological needs
Arousal
The effects of external incentives such as the smell of baking bread are best explained in terms of
individual learning histories
sexual response cycle
the four stages of sexual responding described by Master and Johnson-excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution
refectory period
a resting period after orgasm , during which a an cannot achieve another orgasm
sexual disorder
a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning
3 sexual motivations
social-cultural influence, psychological influence, and biological influence
sexual orientation
an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's attraction toward member of either the same or other sex
emotion
a response of the whole organism involving physiological arousal expressive behaviors and consciously experienced thoughts and feelings
James-Lange theory
the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion arousing stimuli
Cannon-Bard Theory
the theory that an emotion arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers physiological response and the subjective experience of emotion
two factor theory
the Schachter-Singer theory that to experience emotion one must be physically aroused and cognitively label the arousal
catharsis
emotional release
feel good, do good phenomenon
people's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood
subjective well being
self perceived happiness or satisfaction with life
Selye's general adaptation syndrome consist of an alarm reaction followed by
resistance then exhaustion
Researchers suggest that the most significant sources of stress are
daily hassles
What is a good test
standardization, reliability, and validity
Types of intelligence
analytical, creative, practical and emotional
Maslow's Hierarchy of needs
physiological, safety, belonging/love, esteem and self actualization
Motivations for eating
biological factors and psychological factors
eating disorders affect
educate, affluent, females, high correlation with obsessive compulsive disorder and depression
biological factors
testosterone, estrogen, and pheromones
three components of emotions
physiological, cognitive and behavioral
James-Lange
subjective experience of emotion follows bodily arousal
Cannon-Bard
arousal and emotion occur simultaneously
Schachter's Two factor
arousal and label or interpretation produced by emotion
Type A personality
competitive hard working impatient and anger prone person
Type B personality
easy going and relaxed person