The tubelike digestive system canal that extends from the mouth to the anus is known as the
Alimentary canal or gastrointestinal tract
How is the muscularis externa of the stomach modified?
Besides the usual circular and longitudinal layers of smooth muscle, it also an innermost layer of smooth muscle that runs obliquely.
How does the modification relate to the function of the stomach?
Allows stomach not only to mix, churn and move food along the tract (circular/longitudinal fiber function) but also to pummel the food, physically breaking it down into smaller fragements and to ram food into the small intenstine (oblique fiber function)
What transition in epithelial exist at the gastroesophageal junction?
Squamous cells in the esophagus to columnar cell in the gastric mucosa.
How do the epithelia of these two organs relate to their specific function?
Simple columnar for gastric is absorption & stratified squamous provides protection in esophagus
Differentiate between the colon and the large intestine
Large intestine extends from the ileocecal valve to the anus. Colon is part of the large intestine and is divided into ascending, descending, and sigmoid colon.
Structure that suspends the small intestine from the posterior body wall
Fingerlike extensions of the intestinal mucosa that increase the surface area for absorption
Large collections of lymphoid tissue found in the submucosa of the small intestine
Deep folds of the mucosa and submucosa that extend completely or partially around the circumference of the small intestine
Regions that break down foodstuffs mechanically
Appendix and oral cavity
Mobile organ that manipulates food in the mouth and initiates swallowing
Conduit for both air and food
3 structures continous with and representing modifications of the peritoneum
Greater omentum, lesser omentum, and mesentary
The "gullet"; no digestive/absorptive function
Folds of the gastric mucosa
Sacculations of the large intestine
Projections of the plasma membrane of a mucosal epithelial cell
Valve at the junction of the small and large intestines
Primary region of food and water absorption
Membrane securing the tongue to the floor of the mouth
Absorbs water and forms feces
Area between the teeth and lips/cheeks
Wormlike sac that outpockets from the cecum
Initiates protein digestion
Structure attached to the lesser curvature of the stomach
Organ distal to the stomach
Valve controlling food movement from the stomach into the duodenum
Posterosuperior boundary of the oral cavity
Location of the hepatopancreatic sphincter through which pancreatic secretions and bile pass
Serous lining of the abdominal cavity wall
Principal site for the synthesis of vitamin K by microrganisms
Region containing two spinchters through which feces are expelled from the body
Bone-supported anterosuperiour boundary of the oral cavity
Visible portion of the tooth in situ
Material covering the tooth root
Hardest substance in the body
Attaches the tooth to bone and surrounding alveolar structures
Portion of the tooth embeded in bone
Forms the major portion of tooth structure; similar to bone
Produces the dentin
Site of blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics of the tooth
Entire portion of the tooth covered with enamel
In human the number of deciduous teeth is _____; the number of permanent teeth is _____.
What's the dental formula for permanent teeth? Explain what it means.
2,1,2,3 / 2,1,2,3 x 2 = 32 ; It means 2 incisors, 1 canine, 2 premolars, and 3 molars on the upper teeth & 2 incisors, 1 canine, 2 premolars, and 3 molars on the lower teeth MULTIPLY by 2.
What is the dental formular for decidous teeth?
2,1,0,2 / 2,1,0,2 x 2 = 20
What teeth are the "wisdom teeth"?
The third molars
Produces mucus; found in the submucosa of the small intestine
Produces a product containing amylase that begins starch breakdown in the mouth
Produces a whole spectrum of enzymes and an alkaline fluid that is secreted in the duodenum
Produces bile that it secretes into the the duedenum via the bile duct
Produces HCl and pepsinogen
Found in the mucosa of the small intestine; produces intenstinal juice
Which of the salivary glands produces a secretion that is mainly serous?
What is the role of the gallbladder?
Name 3 structures always found in the portal regions of the liver
Hepatic artery, hepatic portal vein, and bile duct
Where would you find the Kupffer cells of the liver? What's its function?
Sinusoid walls; remove debris such as bacteria or won-out blood cells from the blood.
Why is the liver so dark red in the living animal?
High amount of blood that circulates through the liver
What are the two major populations of secretory cells in the pancreas? Which serves the digestive process?
Islets and acinar cells; acinar cells
Compare the appearance of tongue papullae in cats and humans.
Filiform papillae, especially at the anterior end of the tongue, is sharp, bristly and more abundant in the cat.
Compare the number of lobes of the liver in cat and humans.