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Terms in this set (66)
Unicellular fungi are called...
Multicellular fungi are called...
What is the body of a multicellular fungi called?
What are the thread-like masses called that make up the mycelium?
What does it mean to have coenocytic hyphae?
Hyphae are not divided in to cells.
What does it mean if hyphae are septate?
Hyphae are divided into cells.
What are fungi cell walls made of?
What type of metabolism do Fungi possess?
• Heterotrophic, absorptive. Digestion is external via enzymes.
• Most are saprobic.
• Some are parasitic, some mutualists.
Decomposer that feed on dead, organic matter.
What is the term for mutualistic fungi and plant root relationship?
What types of plants participate in mycorrhizal relationships?
Vascular plants (especially woody plants)
Briefly describe how mycorrhyzae works
Hyphae grows toward and links up with roots. Take up the absorptive job that root hairs normally do. Hyphae penetrate root and cell walls to extract sugar.
What are the benefits of mycorrhizae for both plant and fungi?
Plant: Gets improved uptake of water and minerals.
Fungi: Gets fixed carbon (carbohydrates)
What is the difference between Ectomycorrhyzae and Arbuscular mycorrhyzae?
Ectomycorrhyzae: hyphae surround the root and penetrate the intercellular space.
Arbuscular mycorrhyzae: hyphae penetrate cell walls of the root cells creating invaginations in the cell wall (but plasma membrane is not penetrated).
• Mostly non-flagellated
• Mostly terrestrial organisms
• Mostly zygotic life cycle
• Commonly reproduce by forming spores.
Are spores associated with sexual or asexual reproduction in fungi?
Trick Question!! Spores may be associated with BOTH.
Where are spores of fungi formed?
In Sporangia or Conidiophores
What is a conidiophore?
A structure at the tip of hyphae where spores (conidia) are pinched off
Large, complex structures (that form spores) composed of hyphae are called:
Ex: mushrooms, truffles
Compare plasmogamy with karyogamy
Plasmogamy is the fusion of cytoplasm of two different hyphae mating types.
Karyogamy is the fusion of the nuclei of the two different hyphae mating types.
What is dikaryotic hyphae?
When hyphae walls off cells with two nuclei per cell (nuclei of opposite mating types)
Name the Five Fungal Phyla
1. Chytridiomycota (chytrids)
2. Zygomycota (black bread molds)
4. Ascomycota (sac fungi)
5. Basidiomycota (club fungi)
What sets Chytridiomycota apart from the other fungal phyla?
• They are aquatic (freshwater).
• Can have zygotic or sporic life cycle.
• Form flagellated reproductive cells.
Key Features of Chytridiomycota
• Form flagellated reproductive cells with one posterior flagellum (heterogametes; zoospores)
• majority are saprobic. Some parasitic or mutualistic.
Example of Chytridiomycota
What fungal phyla forms a parasitic relationship with amphibians?
Are chytrids unicellular or multicellular?
They can be either unicellular or multicellular.
Are multicellular chytrids coenocytic or septate?
This polyphyletic Phyla includes black bread molds (Rhizopus).
Are Zygomycota unicellular or multicellular?
How does Zygomycota grow?
Via coenocytic mycelium that typically forms rhizoids.
• Asexual via spores (sporangiospores)
• Sexual results in formation of zygospores within zygosporangia
Which Fungal Phyla only reproduces asexually?
(Too "glomorous" for any sexual partner!)
What environment does Glomeromycota inhabit?
What type of mycorrhizae relationship is Glomeromycota associated with?
(hyphae penetrate cell walls but not plasma membrane, creating invaginations in cell walls of plant root cells)
This fungal phyla was identified through molecular traits found in ssRNA
Are Ascomycota unicellular, multicellular, or both?
Ascomycota can be both unicellular or multicellular.
Are multicellular Ascomycota hyphae coenocytic or septate?
Majority are saprobic.
Some are parasitic and some mutualistic (including mycorrhizal)
• Asexual reproduction via Conidia
• Sexual reproduction via hyphae of opposite (+/-) mating types that grow together and fuse. Results in short-lived, dikaryotic mycelium and a fruiting body called an 'ascocarp'
What is the ascocarp made of?
Made partially from haploid + and - mycelia as well as dikaryotic mycelium, which form the hymenial layer.
Where are spores located on the ascocarp?
The hymenial layer.
What are the sac-like, dikaryotic cells called within the hymenial layer?
What does cytokinesis result in with the series of hyphae on the ascus?
Are Basidiomycota unicellular, multicellular or both?
Mostly saprobic. Often parasitic on plants. Some are mutualistic.
Sexual Reproduction results in long-lived dikaryotic mycelium that forms "basidiocarps"
What are basidiocarps?
The "fruiting bodies" of Basidiomycota
(ex: mushrooms, puff balls)
What type of reproductive cell do Basidiomycota create?
What is a lichen?
A mutualistic relationship that forms between a fungal symbiont and an algal symbiont.
Most have unicellular green alga, some have cyanobacterium.
Many share the same algal symbiont
What are the club-shaped cells called on Basidiomycota's hymenial layer?
What are the benefits to the fungi and algae in Lichens?
Fungi receive fixed carbon from Algae.
Algae receive good growing conditions from the fungi.
List the types of Lichens
Describe Crustos Lichens
Flat, flaky looking.
Describe Foliose Lichens
Describe Fruticose Lichens
Where do lichens grow?
On Substrated. Very substrate specific
How do lichens reproduce?
Asexually by forming Soredia
What is haustoria?
a modified hyphae with a protrusion for penetrating cell walls in arbuscular mycorrhizae
What is a septum?
The wall between cells in septate hyphae
Which fungal group develops zoospores?
What is a deuteromycete?
A fungi that lacks sexual reproduction
What is an ascus (or asci)?
the structure within the ascocarp where the spores are held (like a sporangium).
What is a basidium?
The structure which contains basidiospores within the basidiocarp.
Name two ways reproduction varies between Ascomycota and Basidiomycota
1. Ascomycota begins with a conidia pinching off and fusing with opposite mating type whereas Basidiomycota mycelium grow together.
2. Ascomycota form 8 ascospores within their ascus whereas Basidiomycota form 4 basidiospores within their basidium.
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