Dorsal cavity - in the axial region, includes the cranial cavity (brain) and vertebral canal (spinal cord).
Ventral body cavity - in the axial region, includes the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities separated by the
Abdominal cavity - is the superior part of the abdominopelvic cavity. It houses the GI tract, kidneys, ureters,
stomach, pancreas, liver, and many other digestive organs.
Pelvic cavity - is the inferior part of the abdominopelvic cavity. It houses the rectum, bladder, urethra, and
Right hypochondriac region is in the lateral superior right region. Has the following organs - liver, gall
bladder, small intestine, ascending colon, transverse colon. Epigastric region is in the superior middle region. Has the following organs:
i) Digestive - esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, small intestine, transverse colon
ii) Lymphatic- spleen
Left hypochondriac region is in the superior left region. Has the following organs:
i) Digestive - stomach, (tail of) pancreas, small intestine, transverse colon, descending colon
ii) Excretory - left kidney
iii) Lymphatic - spleen
Right lumbar region is the right middle region. Has the following organs:
i) Digestive -ascending colon, small intestine
ii) Excretory - right kidney
Umbilical region is the center region. Has the following organs:
i) Digestive - stomach, pancreas, small intestine, transverse colon
Left lumbar region is the left middle region and contains organs for the following systems
i) Digestive - small intestine, descending colon
ii) Excretory - left kidney (tip)
Right iliac (inguinal) region is located in the right lower region and contains organs for the following systems
i) Digestive - small intestine, appendix, cecum, ascending colon
ii) Reproductive Females - right ovary, right fallopian tube
Hypogastric region is the lower middle region and contains organs for the following systems
i) Digestive - small intestine, sigmoid colon, rectum
ii) Excretory -urinary bladder
iii) Reproductive Females - uterus
Left iliac (inguinal) region is in the left inferior region. Has the following organs:
i) Digestive - small intestine, descending colon, sigmoid colon
ii) Reproductive Females - left ovary, left fallopian tube
Chemical - atoms (Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen) form molecules - H20 (water), CO2 (carbon dioxide), NaCl-
(table salt), etc.
Cellular - smallest units of life -heart cells, brain cells (neurons), etc.
Tissue - 4 primary types: epithelial, connective, nervous, muscular.
Organ - has several types of tissues and distinct location- liver, heart, skin, nerve, stomach.
Organ system - (11) nervous, endocrine, circulatory, reproductive, digestive, skeletal, muscular, lymphatic,
urinary, integumentary, respiratory.
Organism - complete individual (YOU)
Nervous - communication, coordination, motor control and sensation
Endocrine - hormone production; internal chemical communication and coordination
Circulatory -distribution of nutrients, oxygen, wastes, hormones, electrolytes, heat, immune cells, and antibodies; fluid, electrolyte,
and acid-base balance
Reproductive - production of sperm/egg, secretion of sex hormones; females only - site of fertilization and fetal development, fetal
nourishment, birth, lactation
Digestive - nutrient breakdown and absorption, metabolism, synthesis of proteins, disposal of drugs, toxins, and hormones; cleansing
Skeletal - support, movement, protective enclosure of viscera, blood formation, electrolyte and acid-base balance
Muscular - movement, stability, communication, control of body openings, heat production
Lymphatic - recovery of excess tissue fluid, detection of pathogens, production of immune cells, defense against disease
Urinary - elimination of wastes, regulation of blood volume and pressure, stimulation of red blood cell formation, control of fluid,
electrolyte, and acid-base balance, detoxification
Integumentary - protection, water retention, thermoregulation, vitamin D synthesis, cutaneous sensation, nonverbal communication
Respiratory - absorption of oxygen, discharge of carbon dioxide, acid-base balance, speech