130 terms

Praxis II - Library Media Specialist (0311)


Terms in this set (...)

Standards for the 21st century learner (2007)
- Information literacy standards for students

Standards for the 21st century learner IN ACTION (2009)
- provides support for teaching the skills

Empowering Learners (2009)
- Guidelines for school library media programs; replaced Information Power (1998-March 2009)
The mission of the school library media program is to...
ensure that students and staff are effective users of ideas and information. The SLMS empowers students to be...
*critical thinkers
*enthusiastic readers
*skillful researchers
*ethical users of information.

was revised to reflect the expanding responsibilities of the SLMS in helping learners develope 21st century skills

(Empowering Learners, 2009, p. 8 )
A digital divide exists...
between those with 24/7 Web access at home and school and those with limited access
Two core approaches to learning embedded in school library media programs...
reading & inquiry
9 common beliefs...
1) Reading is a window to the world.
2) Inquiry provides a framework for learning.
3) Ethical behavior in the use of information must be taught.
4) Technology skills are crucial for future employment needs.
5) Equitable access is a key component for education.
6) The definition of information literacy has become more complex as resources and technologies have changed.
7) The continuing expansion of information demands that all individuals acquire the thinking skills that will enable them to learn on their own.
8) Learning has a social context.
9) School libraries are essential to the development of learning skills.

(Standards for the 21st-Century Learner, 2007)
4 learning STANDARDS...
1) Inquire, think critically, and gain knowledge.
2) Draw conclusions, make informed decisions, apply knowledge to new situations, and create new knowledge.
3) Share knowledge and participate ethically and productively as members of our democratic society.
4) Pursue personal and aesthetic growth.

(Standards for the 21st-Century Learner, 2007)
4 STRANDS of learning...
*dispositions in action
*self-assessment strategies

(Standards for the 21st-Century Learner, 2007)
What is the changing role of the library media specialist?
information specialist
instructional partner
program administrator

Instructional partner
information specialist
program administrator

(Empowering Learners, 2009, pp. 16&17)
The definition of information literacy has expanded to include multiple literacies such as:
*digital literacy
*visual literacy
*textual literacy
*technological literacy

(Standards for the 21st-Century Learner, 2007, p. 5)
Formative assessments...
give students feedback and the chance to revise work. Examples include rubrics, checklists, portfolios, journals, conferencing, graphic organizers, mind maps, peer review.
Summative assessments...
use for process and product in collaboration with teachers
Performance-based assessments...
rubrics, checklists, portfolios, journals, observation, conferencing, self-questioning
Children's materials
ages 6-12
Materials should meet the
educational, emotional, cultural, and recreational needs of students.
# of children's books increased tremendously in
late 1980's, again in 1998, and in 2006 was approximately 26,000.
textbooks vs. trade books
trade books are published for institutional & consumer markets; for entertainment & information.
Eliza Dresang - "Radical Change" theory
INTERACTION (a book has several options for the path the reader takes, narrative, quotes, timelines, facts, illustrations); ACCESS (different points of entry); CONNECTIVITY; CHANGING BOUNDARIES (more honest with kids, advanced subject matter); CHANGING PERSPECTIVES (previously unheard voices); CHANGING FORMATS
Louise Rosenblatt - Reader Response theory
A 2-way transaction between the reader and the text. Takes into account the context (time and place).

Every reader brings their background knowledge, past experiences in life and with literature, current stage of cognitive development and literacy skills, attitudes & expectations, interests & preferences, and moral/ethical background to the reading experience.

A case against "leveled" books.
Selection Tools
Children's Core Collection (H.W. Wilson)

A to Zoo: Subject Access to Picture Books

Best Books for Children (Libraries Unlimited)

Guide to Recc. Children's Books & Media for Use with Every Elementary Subject (Neal-Schuman

Adventuring with Books (NCTE)
Review Journals

School Library Journal

Horn Book Magazine/The Horn Book Guide

The Bulletin of the Center for Children's Books

Multicultural Review
Annual Lists
ALSC (ALA) names notable children's books, videos, recordings, software, and websites.

SLJ, Booklist, Horn Book, and BCCB publish a "best books" list.

NCSS (social studies)
NSTA (science)
Aesthetic vs. Efferent reading
aesthetic (reading for pleasure) vs. efferent (remembering facts)
Book Awards
ALSC (ALA) - announced at ALA midwinter:
Caldecott - children 14 and younger
Newbery - children 14 and younger
Robert F. Siebert (informational books)
Theodor Seuss Geisel (beginning readers)
Laura Ingalls Wilder (lasting contribution)
Batchelder (translater into English)
Pura Belpre (Latino cultural experience)

Odyssey Award (producer of the best audiobook produced for children and/or young adults)
Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults (notable audio recordings significant to YAs)

Michael L. Printz Award (excellence in YA lit)
Alex Awards (adult books that are appealing to young adults)
Margaret A. Edwards Award (significant and lasting contribution to YA lit)

Scott O'Dell (historical fiction)
Orbis Pictus (NCTE, nonfiction)
National Book Award
Charlotte Zolotow (picture book text)
IRA Children's Choices
Boston Globe-Hornbook Award
Illustrated books
do not depict or extend the text.
Picture books
communicate information. The illustrations contribute to/enhance/complement the telling of the story.
Artistic media
A. Painterly techniques:
Pen & Ink
Chalk, Pastels, Charcoal
Mixed media

B. Graphic techniques:
Visual elements
Composition (arrangement of all visual elements and how they relate to one another)

adds to the mood/emotion
The book designer chooses...
book size/shape, dust jacket, front cover, end papers, title page, paper stock, typeface (font)
The publisher/editor chooses...
the illustrator and book designer.
Artistic style
Realism (representational)
Surrealism (sense of unreality)
Impressionism (light in nature)
Expressionism (bold colors, rapid brushwork), Abstract (exaggeration, distortion)
Primitive/folk art (regional/tribal, lack of perspective)
Cartoon (panels, slapstick, absurdity, lively line)

Most illustrators have a distinct (personal) style while others vary among books.
Picture Storybooks
contain a plot and characterization; are meant to be read aloud; should not be "leveled" because the text/language is usually richer since the illustrations add to the meaning
Picture books for older readers
(ages 10+) more sophisticated/abstract/complex, good for students learning disabilities or ELL, visual learners

David Weisner, Jon Scieszka (Stinky Cheese Man)
Easy-to-read books
simple vocabulary (Dolch common sight words, limited or controlled vocabulary), short sentences, large typeface

Dr. Seuss, Frog and Toad, Little Bear, Henry and Mudge, Mo Willems' Elephant & Piggie books
Transitional books
transition from easy-to-read to chapter books (a.k.a. "beginning chapter books")

chapters are 6-8 pages long, simple vocabulary, short sentences, don't exceed 15 words per line, illustrations, large typeface

Encyclopedia Brown, Amber Brown
*see Grypon Award
Fairy tales
Science fiction

fiction in which there is some element not found in the natural world

requires a willing suspension of disbelief

traditional literature and modern fantasy
Traditional literature/Folklore
of the oral tradition; no known author; preserved through storytelling

nursery rhymes, FOLKTALES, fables, myths, legends, tall tales, epics, religious stories, folk songs

early recordings: Charles Perrault (1697, Mother Goose, Cinderella); Grimm Brothers (1812-1857)
Characteristics of folktales
repetition (3s), fast, vague setting, flat characters, symbolic of good vs. evil, rich language, imagery, themes of perseverance and "the little guy wins", clever/evil/good characters, magical powers/objects, transformations, wishes, trickery, universality

look for source notes (at beginning or end of book) to determine where story originated from

*compare different versions of the same story to examine multiculturalism
*determine point-of-view
*encourage children to write their own versions
*reader's theater/dramatization
North American folktales
1) Native American (Paul Goble)

2) African American (Brer Rabbit - Julius Lester, Virginia Hamilton, Belle Dorcas)

3) Tall Tales (humor/bravado/pioneer spirit/based on supposedly real people)

4) Variants of European tales

5) Spinoffs/Parodies/Fractured fairy tales
Issues associated with traditional literature
violence (Americans have watered them down)

sexual stereotyping
Modern fantasy
stories that have a "known" author
grounded in reality so that it is believable

1) Modern Folktales (a.k.a "literary folktales" Hans Christian Anderson, Oscar Wilde, Rudyard Kipling)

2) Low Fantasy (animal fantasy, personified toys/objects, little people, supernatural events, mystery fantasy, unusual characters, strange situations)

3) High Fantasy (quest stories, secondary world, more complex

4) Science Fiction (a world functioning by scientific laws/variants)
Realistic fiction
possible but not always probable; feature child protagonist; plot centers on children's experiences; a "window" into their lives and the lives of others

what we consider realistic depends on the current social context - changes over the years

1960s - becomes more diverse and shows complex social lives, non-traditional families

should end on a hopeful note

Victorian era vs. Contemporary realistic fiction
"New realism"
coined by Shelton Root (1977) - fiction once considered too "taboo" (death, violence, divorce, family problems, social problems)

best to focus on the people/characters instead of the problem
Series books
1) Books in a series (The Penderwicks, Clementine)

2) Popular series ("formula fiction", predictability of characters and plots, Babysitters Club)

kids like the familiarity and the books are generally easy to read/quick moving
Poetry Anthologies
from many different times, by many different poets, on many different topics (Sing a Song of Popcorn)

usually longer than poetry collections
Poetry Collections
1) poems by the same poet (Where the Sidewalk Ends)
2) poems on one topic/subject (Science Verse)
3) poems of one type/form (The Book of Pigericks)
Single Illustrated Poems
Owl Moon, Casey at the Bat
Poetry concepts/activities
look for the end of a thought before pausing
determine rhyme scheme
involve kids in reading poetry (Poems for Two Voices)
*choose a poem and recreate it with own content (ex. Science Verse)
*found poetry
*spine label poetry
Historical fiction
written about a time period in which the author has not lived
an author can write about a time period they lived through if it is written 1 generation later (20-60 years)

great for introducing history to children; narrative writing is more easily understood than expository writing (more humanizing, varying perspectives, depth/details); fact and fiction blended in an interesting manner

April 15 issue of Booklist
Multicultural books
diversity, varied heritage, critical inquiry, multiple perspectives, heighten sensitivity, avoids racial/cultural stereotyping, no generalizations, cultural authenticity

African Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans, Latinos, women, religious groups, regional groups, GLBT, disabled

not a genre in of itself
Multicultural Book Awards
Coretta Scott King Award (African descent)
Pura Belpre Award (Latino cultural experience)
Americas Award (Latin America/Caribbean)
Tomas Rivera Mexican American Award
Asian Pacific American Award
Sydney Taylor (Jewish)
Carter Woodson Award (U.S. ethnicities)
Schneider Family Book Award (disabilities)
Non-Print materials
Audiobooks (struggling readers)

E-books (TumbleBooks is an online collection of animated talking picture books; Scholastic BookFlix, ICDL, Screen Actors Guild offers Storyline Online)

Video/DVD (etvStreamlineSC has 1200+ films/videos including Weston Woods; search by curriculum standards)

Websites (ALSC Great Websites for Kids)
should have multidimensional characters (strengths & weaknesses), photographs, reproductions, quotes, anecdotes, source notes
Picture Book Biographies
David Adler, Diane Stanley, Doreen Rappaport

one of the strongest genres in contemporary children's lit
Non-Fiction/Information books
should comprise 50-85% of collection

appeal to boys and reluctant readers

A good informational book not only informs, it excites!

importance of illustrations
unconventional approaches (faction-mixing fact and fiction; written as a narrative)
Issues associated with informational books
Anthropomorphism - attributing human characteristics to animals/inanimate objects/natural phenomena (e.g. "thinking")



Didacticism (too "teachy", dull)
Goldilocks' method for determining a "just right" book
As you read, ask yourself these questions. If you answer yes to most then the book is probably "just right" for you (not too easy & not too hard).

These are the books that will help you make the most progress in your reading.

1. Is this book new to you?

2. Do you understand most of the book?

3. Are there a few words per page that you don't recognize or know the meaning to instantly? Remember to use the five finger test.

4. Can someone help you with the book if you hit a tough spot?
Five Finger Test
a way to "test" a book before you spend too much time with it and get frustrated

Find a page of text somewhere in the middle of the book (one with lots of text and few or no pictures).

Each time you come to a word you don't know, hold 1 finger up. If you have all 5 fingers up before you get to the end of the page, it is probably too difficult for you right now.

If you have less than 5 fingers but more than 1 or 2 fingers up when you finish, the book may be just what you need to grow as a reader.
Ban Those Bird Units! 15 Models for Teaching and Learning in Information-rich and Technology-rich Environments (David Loertscher)
Bird units are fill-in-the-blank library assignments or reports; result = copying or outright plagarism. Named after the ubiquitous 4th grade bird units.

Ban low-level activities & replace with exciting learning experiences that incorporate information literacy and technology into achievement. Models, sample units, forms, and links to popular educational practices such as Understanding by Design are provided.

Works across K-12 and all disciplines. Go beyond the textbook/lecture.

A guide for teachers as much as it is for librarians and technology specialists. A companion work to Build Your Own Information Literate School.

Great for planning collaborative units and doing professional development with teachers.
"Just in Time" learning
Information skills are embedded in content standards. Start with a state standard and then pull out the information task.

Trigger words include evaluate; recognize the importance of; debate; assume a point of view; investigate; communicate; make a judgment; state a conclusion; interpret; explore; compare; discover a relationship; identify a trend.
Understanding by Design (Wiggins & McTighe)
Conceptual framework for instructional design; focus on deepening students' understanding of important ideas

6 "facets" of understanding:
1. explain — provide thorough and justifiable accounts of phenomena, facts, and data

2. interpret — tell meaningful stories, offer apt translations, provide a revealing historical or personal dimension to ideas and events; make subjects personal or accessible through images, anecdotes, analogies, and models

3. apply — effectively use and adapt what they know in diverse contexts

4. have perspective — see and hear points of view through critical eyes and ears; see the big picture

5. empathize — find value in what others might find odd, alien, or implausible; perceive sensitively on the basis of prior indirect experience

6. have self-knowledge — perceive the personal style, prejudices, projections, and habits of mind that both shape and impede our own understanding; they are aware of what they do not understand and why understanding is so hard
Backwards design model (Wiggins & McTighe)
Begin by identifying the desired results (what we want students to know/do at the end of instruction) and then "work backwards" to develop activities and assessments.

use in place of the traditional approach which is to define what topics need to be covered

Stage 1: Identify desired outcomes and results.

Stage 2: Determine what constitutes acceptable evidence of competency in the outcomes and results (assessment).

Stage 3: Plan instructional strategies and learning experiences that bring students to these competency levels.
Bloom's Taxonomy in the Cognitive Domain (1956)
Categories reflect progressively complex cognitive levels. Includes verbs describing activities at each level.

1. Knowledge
Recognizes and recalls facts and specifics. (define)

2. Comprehension
Interprets, translates, summarize or paraphrases information. (restate)

3. Application
Uses information in a situation different from original learning context. (demonstrate)

4. Analysis
Separates whole into parts until relationship among elements is clear. (classify)

5. Synthesis
Combines elements to form new entity from original ones. (construct)

6. Evaluation
Involves acts of decision making, judging or selecting based on criteria and rational. (judge)
Revised Bloom's Taxonomy (2001)
published by Anderson & Krathwohl

action verbs are used in place of nouns

levels five and six switched

1. Remember
o Recognizing
o Recalling

2. Understand
o Interpreting
o Exemplifying
o Classifying
o Summarizing
o Inferring
o Comparing
o Explaining

3. Apply
o Executing
o Implementing

4. Analyze
o Differentiating
o Organizing
o Attributing

5. Evaluate
o Checking
o Critiquing

6. Create
o Generating
o Planning
o Producing

knowledge is at the basis of these six cognitive processes (factual, conceptual, procedural, metacognitive)
The Big 6 (Eisenberg & Berkowitz - 1987)
information problem-solving approach
most popular model for information skills

Ideal for grades 3-12.
Super3: Plan, Do, Review (for K-2)

1. Task Definition
1.1 Define the information problem
1.2 Identify information needed

2. Information Seeking Strategies
2.1 Determine all possible sources
2.2 Select the best sources

3. Location and Access
3.1 Locate sources (intellectually and physically)
3.2 Find information within sources

4. Use of Information
4.1 Engage (e.g., read, hear, view, touch)
4.2 Extract relevant information

5. Synthesis
5.1 Organize from multiple sources
5.2 Present the information

6. Evaluation
6.1 Judge the product (effectiveness)
6.2 Judge the process (efficiency)
Students select topics of personal interest and produce meaningful products.

Metacognitive thinking. Students are asked to keep a log of their actions, thoughts, and feelings as they move through the process. In addition, students are asked to reflect on their previous research experiences to set the stage for an appreciation of the research process.

Based on Ken Macrorie's 1988 book entitled, The I-Search Paper, I-Search proposes an alternative to the traditional research paper. Adapted in the 1990's by Marilyn Joyce and Julie Tallman.

Often used by middle and high school students, the inquiry-based approach can also be used with elementary or college students.

Four general steps:
1. Selecting a topic - exploring interests, discussing ideas, browsing resources
2. Finding information - generating questions, exploring resources
3. Using information - taking notes, analyzing materials
4. Developing a final product - developing communications, sharing experiences
Pathways to Knowledge (Pappas & Tepe)
Developed by Marjorie L. Pappas and Ann E. Tepe; sponsored by Follett

importance of questioning & authentic learning

nonlinear process for finding, using, and evaluating information

In their book Pathways to Knowledge and Inquiry Learning (2002), Pappas and Tepe drew on the example of a fourth grade class in Kentucky that was concerned about the removal of a mountain top by a coal company. Working collaboratively, the classroom teacher and school library media specialist designed a learning experience to explore the issue. The project ultimately involved the students in testifying at legislative hearings and holding allies to promote public awareness of the issue. The children won the President's Environmental Youth Award for their project.
Information Search Process (ISP - Carol Kuhlthau)
published in 1985 and updated in 1994

emphasis on the attitudes and behaviors of students during the process

Students often start a project with enthusiasm and initial success but can become confused and uncertain as they progress. Important not to "give up" after the initial search for information.

importance of providing students with an "invitation to research" that encourages students to visualize the possibilities

"dip in confidence" experienced by learners as a natural part of inquiry

Seven stages:
1. Initiating a Research Assignment
Feelings: apprehension, uncertainty

2. Selecting a Topic
Feelings: confusion, sometimes anxiety, brief elation, anticipation

3. Exploring Information
Feelings: confusion, uncertainty, doubt, sometimes threat

4. Formulating a Focus
Feelings: optimism, confidence in ability to complete task

5. Collecting Information
Feelings: realization of extensive work to be done, confidence in ability to complete task, increased interest

6. Preparing to Present
Feelings: sense of relief, sometimes satisfaction, sometimes disappointment

7. Assessing the Process
Feelings: sense of accomplishment or sense of disappointment
The Research Cycle (Jamie McKenzie - 1995)
focus on essential questions

actively revising and rethinking the research questions throughout the process

requires students to make decisions, create answers, and show independent judgment

students as information producers rather than simply information gatherers

Students move repeatedly through the following steps in the research cycle:

* Questioning
* Planning
* Gathering
* Sorting & Sifting
* Synthesizing
* Evaluating
Reporting (after several repetitions of the cycle)
REACTS (Stripling & Pitts)
need for high level thinking in the research process; focus on critical thinking

If students research at a low level, they're likely to react at a low level. In other words, if students spend their time collecting facts, they'll probably create a low-level recall-type report.

However if they spend their time in the research process integrating, concluding, and conceptualizing, then their final product will be reflect transformation and synthesis of information.

The REACTS Taxonomy:

* Recalling
* Explaining
* Analyzing
* Challenging
* Transforming
* Synthesizing
provide an authentic, technology-rich environment for problem solving, information processing, and collaboration

involves students in a wide range of activities that make good use of Internet-based resources

Bernie Dodge developed the WebQuest concept in the mid 1990s (WebQuest.org)

WebQuest elements:
1. introduction that sets the stage of the activity
2. doable, interesting task
3. set of information resources
4. clear process
5. guidance and organizational frameworks
6. conclusion that provides reflection and closure
Visual presenter (a.k.a. Document camera)
When joined with a data projector (IWB) or TV, the visual presenter can be used to provide shared reading experiences, explore tiny objects close up, or examine primary source documents.
Electronic keyboards (a.k.a. Alphasmarts)
portable, battery powered, word-processing keyboards

one-to-one computing solution under $200

For projects that involve writing but don't require a laptop. The infrared feature can beam text to a printer.

Good for students with learning disabilities such as dyslexia or dysgraphia, or faced with physical hurdles such as a lack of fine motor skills:

* Sticky Keys allows students to type combination keystrokes without pressing the keys simultaneously.
* Slow Keys helps children with unsteady hands or difficulty in key targeting.
* Auto-repeat can be disabled to support students with reflex control challenges.
* High-contrast LCD screen and multiple font sizes help children with vision challenges.
* Linked Files make it easy to provide customized assignments, instruction, and support materials.
MP3 players / Playaways
Great tool for listening to audiobooks or podcasts.

Also benefit ELL, SPED, and reluctant readers.
Accessibility issues
Provide print material in alternate formats including: Braille, large print, audiotape, digital sound files and e-text. Whenever possible, information should be provided in the alternative format preferred by the student.

Docs created using Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) are difficult, if not impossible, to read using screen readers and/or refreshable braille displays. If materials are provided on a website in PDF format, an alternative version should also be available in plain text or HTML format.
Machine-Readable Cataloging (MARC)
international standard digital format for the description of bibliographic items

developed by the Library of Congress during the 1960s

computerized cataloging from library to library

most predominant format is MARC 21, created in 1999 (includes holdings records and classification)

enables library automation systems and sharing of bibliographic resources

data content is defined by external standards such as AACR2, Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH), etc.
MARC record
for bibliographic description

divided into fields (3-digit tag); organized by hundreds

0XX fields - Control information, numbers, codes
1XX fields - Main entry
2XX fields - Titles, edition, imprint
3XX fields - Physical description, etc.
4XX fields - Series statements (as shown in item)
5XX fields - Notes
6XX fields - Subject added entries
7XX fields - Added entries other than subject or series
8XX fields - Series added entries (other authoritative forms)
Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC)
1876 - Melvil Dewey; owned by OCLC since 1988

most widely used classification system in the world

divides human knowledge into 10 main classes, each of which is divided into 10 divisions, and so on (10 classes-10 divisions-10 sections)

decimal fractions are used in the non-fiction class notation (398.24 NOR)

The abridged edition (ADC), intended for general collections of 20,000 or fewer titles, is a logical truncation of the notational and structural hierarchy of the full edition.

OCLC developed WebDewey for classifying Web pages and other electronic resources.
DDC main classes
000 Computers, information & general reference (computer science, LIS, journalism, encyclopedias, etc)

100 Philosophy & psychology (paranormal-

200 Religion

300 Social sciences (398-folklore; 398.2-folk lit)

400 Language (linguistics, specific languages)

500 Science (natural science and math)

600 Technology (and applied sciences, 636-animal husbandry)

700 Arts & recreation

800 Literature & rhetoric (prose, poetry, drama)

900 History & geography

*shelve Biographies by the subject's last name
founded in 1876

*AASL founded in 1914
Student-centered teaching is based on the constructivist model in which students construct rather than receive or assimilate knowledge.

Begin a lesson by asking students to recall what they already know about the subject. Then involve students in an activity that will take them beyond what they currently know. The student must actively engage in the learning process by doing something.

If students construct their own framework or schema by experimenting, they are more likely to retain facts learned.

teacher serves as facilitator by providing a framework (i.e. activities for students to complete - research, answering open ended questions, writing, web 2.0 products)

for higher levels of cognition to occur, students must build their own knowledge through activities that engage them in active learning; create meaning for themselves and go beyond rote learning

Key concepts:
* Learning is active.
* Learning is social by nature- learners share ideas, inquire, and problem solve together.
* Prior experiences, values, and beliefs affect new learning.
* Reflection and metacognition contribute to the construction of new knowledge.
* People create mental schemas/scaffolding on which to store and recall information. The broader a student's schema, the more that student is able to learn.

* constructing
* experimenting
* practicing
* summarizing and reading
* conducting research and analysis
* articulating (writing, drawing)
Computer basics
Motherboard: The motherboard serves to connect all of the parts of a computer together. The CPU, memory, hard drives, optical drives, video card, sound card and other ports and expansion cards all connect to the motherboard directly or via cables.

CPU: The CPU/processor (Central Processing Unit) is the brains behind your computer. The CPU is responsible for performing calculations and tasks that make programs work. The faster the CPU, the quicker programs can process computations and commands. It's usually more trouble than it's worth to replace the processor.

RAM: A fast CPU is useless without an adequate amount of RAM (Random Access Memory). RAM is usually referred to as a computer's memory -- meaning it stores information that is used by running programs or applications. More memory lets you run more applications at the same time without degrading your system's performance. *To see the biggest increase in performance, increase the amount of RAM in an older computer.

Hard Disk Drive: The hard disk drive (HDD) of the computer is where permanent information is stored. The HDD speed can affect how fast you can access your files.

Optical Drives (CD, CD-R, CD-RW, DVD, DVD-R, DVD-RW). Most software you buy comes on a CD-ROM, and you'll use your CD or DVD drive to read it and copy the software onto your computer.

Video Card: The video card is a board that plugs into the PC motherboard to give it display capabilities. New video cards come with their own RAM and processor to help speed up the graphics display. Many computers come with video chips built in. That makes a separate video card unnecessary, unless the computer is going to be used for high-end multimedia work or to play video games.

Sound Card: Like video cards, sound cards are expansion boards used for enabling a computer to manipulate sound. Most sound cards give you the power to plug in speakers and a microphone. Some even give you the jacks for hooking your computer up to a common stereo. As with video cards, many computers come with sound chips, making it unnecessary to buy a separate card, unless you need higher sound quality for your work.

Router - a physical device that joins multiple wired or wireless networks together; An IP router such as a DSL or cable modem broadband router joins the home's local area network (LAN) to the wide-area network (WAN) of the Internet.

Spyware/Viruses - mostly affects Windows users

Preventing problems with software: Performing regular maintenance will forestall problems with your operating system and other software. That means installing updates from the software vendor, defragmenting the hard drive, running Scandisk on Windows 98 or chkdsk on Windows 2000 or Windows XP.
ALA publications
American Libraries - magazine of the American Library Association (10x per year)

Booklist - 100+ year old magazine that reviews books, media, and reference for collection development and RA (22x per year)

Book Links - quarterly supplement to Booklist. Connects books and media with libraries and classrooms
AACR - Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules

AAP - Association of American Publishers

AASL - American Association of School Librarians

AECT - Association for Educational Communications & Technology

ALA - American Library Association

ALSC - Association for Library Service to Children

ASCD - Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development

COD - Committee on Diversity

DMCA - Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998

ESEA - Elementary and Secondary Education Act

FRBR - Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records

IFLA - International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions

ILL - Inter-Library Loan or Inter-Library Lending

ISBN - International Standard Book Number

ISSN - International Standard Serial Number

LC - Library of Congress

LIRT - Library Instruction Round Table

LITA - Library & Information Technology Association

LSTA - Library Services and Technology Act

LSSPS - Libraries Serving Special Populations Section (ASCLA)

MARC - MAchine Readable Cataloging

MARS - Machine Assisted Reference Section (RUSA)

NABE - National Association for Bilingual Education

NCATE - National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education

NCES - National Center for Education Statistics

NCLB - No Child Left Behind

NEA - National Education Association

OCLC - Online Computer Library Center

OIF - Office for Intellectual Freedom

OPAC - Online Public Access Catalog

RDA - Resource Description and Access (new cataloguing standard that will replace the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules AACR)

REFORMA - National Association to Promote Library Services to the Spanish Speaking

RFP - Request for Proposal

RUSA - Reference and User Services Association

WAI - Web Accessibility Initiative

XML - Extensible Markup Language

YALSA - Young Adult Library Services Association
ISBN - International Standard Book Number
Beginning in 2007, there is a 13-digit ISBN, with five parts: 1. The current ISBN-13 will be prefixed by "978" 2. Group or country identifier which identifies a national or geographic grouping of publishers; 3. Publisher identifier which identifies a particular publisher within a group; 4. Title identifier which identifies a particular title or edition of a title; 5. Check digit is the single digit at the end of the ISBN which validates the ISBN.
10% to 12% of American children have a
disability. This figure does not include learning disabilities/learning differences. The inclusion of these disabilities results in a rise to 20%.

Children with disabilities are entitled to a free, appropriate education from birth through age 21, by the Individuals with Disabilities in Education Act, Improved (IDEA-I).

Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 - children must receive reasonable accommodation at school

Section 508 - enacted to eliminate barriers in information technology; agencies must give members of the public access to information that is comparable to the access available to others / Assistive Technology
ALA division publications
Knowledge Quest - AASL's print journal (bimonthly September through June)

School Library Media Research - AASL's online research journal

AASL Hotlinks - monthly e-mail newsletter

Children and Libraries: The Journal of ALSC (3x per year)

Young Adult Library Services (YALS) - quarterly journal from YALSA

In November 2010, YALSA will launch the online Journal of Research on Libraries and Young Adults.

YAttitudes - YALSA monthly email newsletter
Tinker vs. Des Moines ICSD (1969)
First Amendment right of free speech/expression

arose when a group of students publicized their objection to the Vietnam War by wearing black armbands to school

there was no disturbance of normal school activities but were told by principal to remove the armbands

Supreme Court said neither students nor teachers "shed their Constitutional right to freedom of speech or expression at the schoolhouse gate."

First Amendment protects the rights of public school children to express their political and social views during school hours
Pico vs. Island Trees Board of Education (1982)
First Amendment is implicated when books are removed arbitrarily and patrons are denied access to ideas

school board members sought removal of 9 library books that they deemed objectionable

described the books as anti-American, anti-Christian, anti-Semitic, and filthy:
Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut
Best Short Stories of Negro Writes by Langston Hughes
Go Ask Alice by anonymous

Supreme Court said school boards do not have unrestricted authority to select library books; condemned politically motivated book removals

suggested that collection development decisions based on educational suitability would be upheld, especially where a regular review system with standardized guidelines was in place
Intellectual freedom
the right of every individual to both SEEK and RECEIVE information from all points of view without restriction

free access to all expressions of ideas

students have the right to a relevant, balanced, and diverse school library collection that represents all points of view
Library Bill of Rights, Article V
affirms special protection to minors using libraries

"A person's right to use a library should not be denied or abridged because of origin, AGE, background, or views."

minors' First Amendment right to read and receive information and ideas
Selection vs. Censorship
When choosing acquisitions, selectors look for the positive whereas censors look for the negative.
Challenged materials
Before a challenge occurs:
1. create a Materials Selection policy with procedures for reconsidering challenged materials
2. seek approval of policy by principal and school board
3. post policy on district and library websites

During a challenge:
1. attempt to resolve informally by listening and explaining policy
2. do not remove material in question
3. inform principal
4. require the challenger to read the entire book (or other material format) and complete a written reconsideration form
Copyright Act of 1976

Article 1, Section 8 of U.S. Constitution

purpose: to promote creativity, innovation, and the spread of knowledge

balances rights of owners and users

US Copyright law changed in the 1980s - no longer require copyright symbol
Fair Use
Title 17, Section 107 of 1976 Copyright Act

supports users' rights for teaching and learning

can use without obtaining permission or paying a license fee

"Fair Use" doctrine:
1. purpose and character of use - nonprofit, educational
2. nature
3. amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted whole
4. effect of the use upon the potential market -

Will it be a transformative work that adds value (repurpose)?

Beneficial uses: quoting from copyrighted works, providing multiple copies to students in class, creating new knowledge

The following are only guidelines and NOT the law! (i.e. 10% or 30 seconds)
a. Fair Use Guidelines for Educational Multimedia (1996)
b. Guidelines for the Educational Use of Music
c. Guidelines for Classroom Copying

*see "Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for Media Literacy Education" - Temple U Media Education Lab/Renee Hobbs
Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998
digital rights management
Public domain
Unpublished works - life of the author + 70 years

Published works - before 1923 - in the public domain due to copyright expiration

Published works created after 1977 - 70 years after the death of author. If a work of corporate authorship, 95 years from publication or 120 years from creation, whichever expires first.

Works by the U.S. Government are always in the public domain.
Keith Curry Lance
school library impact studies

clear link between SLM programs staffed by state-certified SLMS and increased student achievement

Colorado study (1993):
size of LMC staff and the collection are the best predictors of academic achievement

Ohio study (2003):
13,000 kids can't be wrong


School Libraries Work! (Scholastic) - summary of impact studies
Moving Picture Experts Group

digital video compression

generally produces better-quality video than competing formats
How cognitive theory views the human brain
The human brain and modern computers have similarities in regards to problem solving. Similar in the storage and management of a
tremendous amount of information.
No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 under George W. Bush

to improve the academic achievement of every student

is actually the revised (1965 ESEA) Elementary and Secondary Education Act

*states to expand the scope and frequency of student testing
*requires states to make demonstrable annual progress in raising the percentage of students proficient in reading and math
*narrow the test-score gap between advantaged and disadvantaged students
*revamp of accountability systems
*every teacher must be qualified in their subject area

*increases funding in several areas, including K-3 reading programs and before- and after-school programs
*provides states with greater flexibility to use federal funds as they see fit
Primary roles of library technician/assistant
*assists the SLMS with non-professional library tasks required to manage the library and its collections
*circulate materials
*provide reference, research and technical assistance for students and teachers
What you get automatically (for "free") with ALA membership
American Libraries - magazine of the American Library Association (10x per year)
How Kuhlthau's model & Vygotsky's theory relate to learning...
Kuhlthau's ISP theory:
emphasis on the attitudes and behaviors of students during the information search process

importance of providing students with an "invitation to research" and encourage them to not give up when frustrated

Vygotsky's Social Development theory:
social interaction plays a fundamental role in the development of cognition
CREW guidelines for weeding
(Continuous Review, Evaluation, and Weeding)

Benefits of weeding:
*save space
*save time
*make the collection/shelving more appealing
*enhance the library's reputation for reliability and currency
*keep up with collection needs (constant review) of strengths and weaknesses

Factors to consider:
*visual appearance - jacket art (contemporary vs. outmoded) Does the book look like
something your great-grandmother read?
*hasn't circulated in 3-5 years
Children's Internet Protection Act (2001)

The law places restrictions on the use of funding that is available through the Library Services and Technology Act (LSTA) of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), and on the Universal Service discount program known as the E-rate (discounts for Internet access or internal connections).

Requires Internet safety policies (AUPs) and technology which blocks or filters certain material from being accessed through the Internet.

Deadline for compliance with CIPA was July 1, 2004, following the Supreme Court ruling in 2003.
Children's Online Privacy Protection Act (1998)

requires commercial online content providers (websites) to obtain verifiable parental consent of children under the age of 13 before they can collect, archive, use, or resell any personal information pertaining to that child

personally identifiable information is anything that would allow someone to identify or contact the child (i.e. full name, address, e-mail address, telephone number, or Social Security number, and, when combined with an identifier, information collected through cookies such as hobbies, interests, or other data concerning the child and/or the parents)

important for librarians to understand these rules so that they can assist children who are asked for parental consent before engaging in certain online activities, and, if necessary, guide them to other sites that do not collect personal information
Specific books
"The Snowy Day" (Ezra Jack Keats; 1963 Caldecott Medal, fiction) - Features a little boy named Peter exploring his neighborhood after the first snowfall of the season. Keats (a Polish immigrant) wanted to have minority children of New York as central characters in his stories.

"Flowers for Algernon" (Daniel Keyes, 1966, science fiction) - Told as a series of "Progress Reports" written by Charlie Gordon, a 32 year-old man whose IQ of 68 is tripled by an experimental surgical procedure. Unfortunately, the effects of the operation wear off after several months, and at the end of the novel Charlie is once more of subnormal intelligence. Remarkable use of first-person point of view, as Charlie's entries move from semi-literacy to complex sophistication and back to semi-literacy.The book won the Nebula Award of the Science Fiction Writers of America. Historical context: civil rightss in the 1960s (discriminated against for being too dumb, then too smart, and treated as a lab specimen)

"Go Ask Alice" (Anonymous a.k.a. editor Beatrice Sparks, 1971, originally promoted as nonfiction and later listed as a work of fiction since the late 80s) - The book purports to be the actual diary of an anonymous 15 year-old teenage girl. She records her thoughts and concerns about issues such as crushes, weight gain, sexuality, social acceptance, and difficulty relating to her parents. She later dies of a drug overdose, and the book is presented as a testimony against drug use.

"The Color Purple" (Alice Walker, 1982, historical fiction) - Set in rural Georgia during the 1930s. Theme of double repression of black women in the American experience by white community and also black males. Criticized for negative portrayal of the black male characters but admired for powerful portraits of black women. The central character (14 year old Celie) triumphs over adversity and forgives those who oppressed her. Her father raped her, and she has two children, a girl and a boy, whom "Pa" took away from her. She later falls in love with Shug Avery, a blues singer. Epistolary form: written correspondence between characters comprises the content of the book. Use of black folk English.
Grade level capable of abstract thinking

According to Piaget's Major Stages of Cognitive Development, the formal operational learner begins around age 12.

Even though they are capable of abstract thinking, concrete thinking is still easier.

Most people don't get really good at formal operational thinking and use it habitually until they are 21-23 years old. Even then, most sensible people check their abstract reasoning with concrete diagrams, etc.

Abstractions are essential for complex ideas.

Give opportunities to explore hypothetical questions.

Exposure to "classic literature" can be valuable - but only if the readers have the prerequisite cognitive structures and the developmental abilities to assimilate what the classics have to say and to make appropriate accommodations.
ALA document that supports privacy rights
Intellectual Freedom Manual

"Privacy: An Interpretation of the Library Bill of Rights" states that "The American Library
Association affirms that rights of privacy are necessary for intellectual freedom and are
fundamental to the ethics and the practice of librarianship" and calls upon librarians "to
maintain an environment respectful and protective of the privacy of all users."

The Library Bill of Rights - affirms the ethical imperative to provide unrestricted access to information and to guard against impediments to open inquiry. Article IV states: "Libraries should cooperate with all persons and groups concerned with resisting abridgement of free expression and free access to ideas." When users recognize or fear that their privacy or confidentiality is compromised, true freedom of inquiry no longer exists.

Essential to free speech, free thought, and freedom of inquiry under the First Amendment.

In a library (physical or virtual), the right to privacy is the right to open inquiry without having the subject of one's interest examined or scrutinized by others. Confidentiality exists when a library is in possession of personally identifiable information about users and keeps that information private on their behalf.
Specific authors
Mildred Taylor:
Born 1943 in Jackson, Mississippi. An African American author of historical fiction, known for her works exploring the struggle faced by African-American family (Logan family) in the Deep South.
* Song of the Trees, 1975
* Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry, 1976 (Newbery Medal) - explores life in the South in 1933.
* The Land, 2001 (Coretta Scott King Author Award)

Christopher Paul Curtis:
Born in Flint, Michigan, the partial setting of many of his books. Author of historical fiction.
*The Watsons Go to Birmingham: 1963
*Bud, Not Buddy (winner of the Newbery Award
Coretta Scott King Award)
*Elijah of Buxton

Walter Dean Myers:
Born 1937 and grew up in Harlem. YA fiction, nonfiction, and poetry.
*Sunrise Over Fallujah, 2008
*Game, 2008
*Monster, 1999 (Printz Award)
*Fallen Angels, 1988 (frequently challenged due to depiction of Vietnam War)
"Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism" Act

in response to 9/11

Section 215, legislation that expands the government's authority, allowing the FBI to issue subpoenas, with no prior judicial oversight, to get a patron's library records
Role of the school library media program
satisfy both educational needs and interests of students

appreciate the value of literature

SLMC provides a setting where students develop skills they will need as adults to locate, analyze, evaluate, interpret, and communicate information and ideas in an information-rich world

reaffirms the importance and value of the freedom to read, view, and listen
Instructional classification
SLMCs are classrooms where the SLMS teaches and students and teachers learn

NCLB of 2001 and NCES conflict in their classification of the SLMS.

NCLB: SLMS are teachers (Instructional Staff) who are crucial partners in ensuring that states and school districts meet the reading requirements of NCLB

But, NCES (National Center for Education Statistics) classifies us as "Support Staff--Instruction" - placed in that category since the 1950s - can result in loss of funding
Flexible scheduling
integrated library program - an extension of the classroom - classroom teacher brings knowledge of subject content and student needs while the SLMS contributes knowledge of resources and technology - cooperative planning integrates open inquiry, information skills, and materials into classroom curriculum

maintain an open schedule - can't schedule the LMC to have teacher release or prep time; availability of professional staff and library resources at "point of need"

students and teachers come to the LMC throughout the day

information skills are taught and learned within the context of the classroom curriculum

the principal should advocate the benefits of flex scheduling to faculty, ensure appropriate staffing levels, and provide joint planning time for classroom teachers and the SLMS

the SLMS should be knowledgeable about curriculum and classroom activities and advocate cooperative planning
Appropriate staffing
Basic requirements at all levels:
*one or more certified full-time SLMS (the number of additional professional staff is determined by school size)
*at least one full-time technical assistant/clerk for each SLMS

a district library media director is required for all school systems - to provide leadership and direction
Confidentiality of library records
right to privacy of library users

records are confidential and not to be used for purposes other than routine record keeping

eliminate records as soon as reasonably possible

children and youth have the same privacy rights as adults

confidentiality includes information sought or received, database search records, ILL records, and use of materials/facilities/services

law enforcement must issue a court order (subpoena), following a show of good cause based on specific facts for investigation of criminal activity of a library user (*best to refer law enforcement directly to the school district's attorney)
Access to resources and services (Interpretation of the Library Bill of Rights)
collections of resources that meet the needs, developmental levels, and maturity levels of all students served

equitable access to facilities, resources, and instructional programs

support the mission of the school district

represent diverse points of view on both current and historical issues

accomodate needs of ELL students (linguistic pluralism)

promote intellectual freedom and resist censorship

Barriers include:
age, grade-level, or reading-level restrictions; labeling; limiting use of ILL and access to electronic information; charging fees for information; requiring permission from parents or teachers; restricted shelves/closed collections
SLMS role in reading
reading is a foundational skill for 21st century learners

SLM program serves as hub of literacy learning in the school (interdisciplinary); organize and promote literacy projects and events

open access to varied high-quality collection of reading materials in multiple formats that reflect academic needs and personal interests

appreciate literature; promote free independent reading; read for enjoyment as well as for information; promote lifelong reading

become engaged and effective users of ideas and information

use text in both print and digital formats

Model and collaboratively teach reading comprehension strategies:
*use background knowledge
*pose and answer questions appropriate to the task
*make predictions and inferences
*determine main ideas
*determine authority/accuracy of information
*synthesize new knowledge from multiple resources
Resource-based instruction
acquisition, organization, and dissemination of resources to support the reading program through the LMC is cost-effective for the entire school

spoken language, reading, and writing are learned simultaneously

teachers and the SLMS share responsibility for reading and information literacy instruction
Value of independent reading
reading proficiency increases with the amount of time spent reading voluntarily

work with teachers and parents to instill in students a love of reading (create lifelong readers)

Need for:
*access to current, quality, high interest, extensive collections
*positive adult reading role models (read regularly and widely)
*SLMS and teachers who enthusiastically read aloud and booktalk
*time allotted during school day for reading for pleasure or for information
*school environment where independent reading is valued and encouraged
*opportunities that involve parents, caregivers, and other family members in reading
Preparation of the SLMS
*has a broad undergraduate education with a liberal arts background
*holds a Masters Degree in a LIS program accrediated by ALA and NCATE- entry level degree for the profession
*field experience
*meets state certification requirements
FY2011 budget proposal to Congress
Feb 2010; Obama called for a freeze to federal library funding under the Library Services and Tecnology Act (LSTA), the primary source of federal funding to libraries.

omission of librarians in the jobs bill - librarians are as essential as teachers and public safety jobs

consolidate the school library program with literacy programs in the Dept. of Ed - will lead to loss of jobs and loss of services
Ranganathan's Five Laws of Library Science
1. Books are for use.
2. Every reader his book.
3. Every book its reader.
4. Save the time of the reader.
5. A library is a growing organism.
Carnegie Award
producer of video production
Environmental analysis
needed to effectively manage the LMP; the SLMS must be knowledge about:
*general community/school district
*school community
*current status of LMP
Systematic planning
1) Define:
program priorities based on analysis of school community and current LMP

2) Develop:
goals and objectives
a budget
a timeline
implement activities

3) Evaluate:
activities, services, materials
overall program
disseminate results
Library media advisory committee
the LMP will be stronger if decisions are made cooperatively by members selected from the school community (reflective of diverse needs and interests)

shared responsibility for success

no more than 15 people
serve 2 years - 50% rotate off an on
meet 3-4 times per year

may include faculty, administrators, PTO rep, parent volunteers, business/community partners, tech person, students

Ask the principal to appoint the committee while you schedule the meetings and set the agenda.

What committee does:
*develop mission, goals, objectives for the LMP
*establish program priorities and strategic plan
*evaluate the LMP
*recommend policies and procedures
*act as a selection committee
*consider challenges to materials
Long-range planning
a "rolling" plan

3-5 year plan that projects into the future; includes a detailed 1 year plan; revised each year

*description of school community
*program goals and objectives
*plan for evaluating the LMP

ADEPT Performance Standard 1
Name change
1969 standards - first time "media specialist" was used - to signify a unified program of print and A/V materials

1988 standards - put the word "library" back in - "school library media specialist"

January 2010 - AASL adopts "school librarian" as official term for the profession
Legislation affecting school libraries
1965 ESEA

1983 A Nation at Risk - Reagan

2001 NCLB - G W Bush

Race to the Top - Obama