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Terms in this set (18)
The dominating political and social structure that existed during the time of Jesus and the Gospels
The geographical region where Jesus was born in first-century CE that included the provinces of Galilee and Judea
"Instruction," the law of Moses. It comprises the first five books of the Hebrew Bible: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy.
The Ten Commandments
The expression of belief in one God, to the exclusion of all others (monotheism). Deuteronomy 6:4-9 of the Torah.
The holy day for rest
Second Temple at Jerusalem
The important Jewish structure at the center of economic and political power that was destroyed in 70 CE
Festival commemorating the Moses-led liberation from Egyptian slavery. Opened the seven-day festival of Unleavened Bread
Festival that marked the end of the harvest. Also known as Booths or Tabernacles.
Festival of Weeks (Shavu'ot), linked to the offering of the first fruits of harvest and the memory of giving the law to Moses on Mount Sinai
The highest council of the Jews at Jerusalem, presided over by a high priest and included elite priests and lay scribes, that exercised oversight of judicial and financial matters in Jerusalem
A gathering place also known as a Jewish house of prayer and worship
Separatist, priestly group pursuing deep piety and rigorous fidelity to the Torah. Established community at Qumran near the Dead Sea.
Dead Sea Scrolls
Manuscripts discovered near the ruins of the settlement at Qumran which were written by the Essenes
Advocates of a life of holiness for the whole community, not just the priests and the temple, who taught the Torah through oral tradition. Often in conflict with Jesus.
Elite, conservative priestly group who rejected innovations of the Pharisees
A group that practiced active opposition to the Roman occupation and Judean elite. The Zealots are an example.
Viewed as outsiders by Judeans, they are a remnant of the old northern kingdom of ancient Israel. Adhered to an alternative Torah.
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