Praxis 5089 US Hist. Chronological Review

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The Northwest Ordinance
1787 - established a three-step plan for territories to become states. The first step was the appointment of a governor, secretary, and three judges by Congress. Next, the territory was organized once it had a population of 5,000 free adult men, qualifying it to have a legislature. When the territory grew to 60,000 people, it could apply to Congress for admission as a state.
Waltham-Lowell System
In the early 1800s, Francis Cabot Lowell founded a factory in Massachusetts to produce cotton cloth. Lowell decided that it would be desirable to employ young women from New England farms to work in his mills until they married and started a family. He thought this would prevent the development of a permanent underclass of factory workers — which he had seen in England — in the United States.
Monroe Doctrine
Written in 1823 by Secretary of State John Quincy Adams and was made American policy by President James Monroe. Monroe declared that the United States would not interfere with any existing European colonies in the Americas, but would oppose the establishment of any new colonies.
Cherokee
Asserting that the federal government could not mediate sovereignty disputes between states and Indian nations, President Andrew Jackson prevailed upon Congress to pass a law providing for the removal of Native Americans living east of the Appalachian Mountains to federal lands west of the Mississippi River. This group of Indians appealed to the Supreme Court and won, yet they were still marched by the United States Army from Georgia to Oklahoma along the infamous "Trail of Tears."
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Published in 1852 by Harriet Beecher Stowe, the daughter of a prominent theologian, this novel invigorated the abolitionist movement in the northern United States with its sharply critical portrayal of slavery.
Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
From 1820 to 1854, Congress passed a series of laws that admitted new states while maintaining the balance of slave and free states. Senator Stephen Douglas of Illinois wanted Chicago to be the eastern terminus of the transcontinental railroad. By introducing popular sovereignty into the Kansas-Nebraska bill, Douglas hoped to gain southern support. "Popular sovereignty" meant that residents could vote for their new state to be slave or free. In effect, the act reversed the Missouri Compromise (1820), which had barred slavery north of the 36° 30' north latitude.
Sharecropping (or tenant farming)
the primary way former slaves supported themselves after the Civil War in the South. The Northern wartime promise of the redistribution of Southern lands to former slaves, made by, among others, General William T. Sherman during his march on Atlanta, was rescinded quickly. During Reconstruction and after, most former slaves resumed work as sharecroppers on plantations that continued to be owned by White people.
Accomplishments of Progressive movement
The progressives worked to enhance public health and safety through increased regulation of the food and drug industries and improved sanitation in cities.
Dubois
W. E. B. Du Bois was a critic of Booker T. Washington's policies as spelled out in the Atlanta Compromise address in 1895. Du Bois believed that Washington was not a forceful advocate of total equality for African Americans. Du Bois made this criticism very strongly in The Souls of Black Folk. Du Bois was a founding member of the Niagara Movement, which led to the formation of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
Wilson's reason for entering WWI
In his speech to Congress seeking a declaration of war, President Wilson emphasized that "the world must be made safe for democracy." An idealistic impulse to expand the reach of democracy was indeed at the heart of the president's justification for going to war.
The GI Bill
provided returning veterans with loans for housing and education that contributed to the growth of suburbia and increased opportunities for higher levels of education.
Joseph McCarthy
a Republican senator from Wisconsin, was among the most ardent anti-Communist politicians of his generation, famous for his 1950 assertion that the State Department was dominated by Communists, an accusation that led to congressional hearings on the matter.
United States-Soviet relations during the Cold War.
In October 1962, President John F. Kennedy ordered a naval blockade to prevent the Soviet Union from installing nuclear missiles on the island of Cuba. Unlike the other examples listed above, the Cuban missile crisis brought the two nations into direct conflict with one another, a departure from the usual Cold War pattern of confrontation through surrogate nations, such as Vietnam and Korea. Also, unlike the Korean and Vietnam Wars, the resolution of the Cuban missile crisis was widely seen as a clear United States success.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
On December 1, 1955, an African American woman named Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to a white man on a bus in Montgomery, AL. Her arrest prompted African Americans to organize a boycott of the city's buses, which contributed to the emergence of the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. as a prominent leader in the Civil Rights cause.
Johnson's challenge
Despite the fact that the Democrats controlled both houses of Congress, by 1968 the Democratic Party was seriously divided over the war in Southeast Asia. President Johnson faced serious challenges from both pro-war and anti-war party members. Despite the passage of the Medicare Act (1965) to provide health care for elderly Americans, the key political problem facing President Johnson was how to afford the war as well as domestic programs.
Feudalism
characterized by a decentralized administration that indicated a weakened monarchical or imperial control, with regional leaders (members of an aristocratic warrior-elite) who gave something of value — land or money — to knights or samurai in exchange for loyalty and military support. Both Europe and Japan had such systems, including codes of knightly or samurai behavior
Result of Crusades
The European Crusades to the Middle East had significant economic and cultural impacts. Pilgrims returning home introduced new foods, ideas, and technology, all of which helped to stimulate exchange between the eastern and the western Mediterranean. Crusader armies imposed significant burdens on the Byzantine economy and at one point pillaged the Byzantine capital of Constantinople. Pope Urban II intended to strengthen his moral, military, and economic position by means of a Crusade, but the results were just the opposite. Eurasian trade routes remained under the control of the Byzantine Empire, Arab states, and a variety of other powers.
Effect of Spanish conquest of Mesoamerica
The Spanish conquest of Mesoamerica (what is today Mexico and Central America) in the early sixteenth century had many significant effects, many of which were global in nature. The relative isolation of the Americas from the rest of the world made the native peoples of the Americas extremely susceptible to European, or Old World, diseases, and later to African diseases.
Toussaint Louverture
led the Haitian Revolution, the first successful slave revolt, against the French (1791-1804).
First European colonists in Australia
One motivation for the colonization of Australia by Great Britain was the establishment of penal colonies. Due to overcrowding and poor conditions, many prisoners were sent from Great Britain to Australia.
factor contributing to the French Revolution in the late 1700s
A series of causes led to the revolution, including the adoption of some of the political ideals of the American Revolution, poor harvests leading to inflation, and an increase in the price of bread, a staple of the French peasant diet. Foreign adventures in Europe and abroad, such as support for the American Revolution, had run up the French national debt.
Associated with Hinduism
The Vedas are collections of hymns and rituals transmitted orally by priests. Over time, the Vedas were written down along with a set of commentaries (the Upanishads). The Upanishads are a series of dialogues between teachers and disciples about religious issues. Sometimes referred to as the Vedic religion, these dialogues became part of the Hindu tradition. They were written in Sanskrit and date back to the sixth century B.C.E.
characteristic of the interaction between China and Great Britain in the 1800s
Great Britain imported large quantities of tea and other products from China, but China imported little from the British Empire. The British encouraged the export of opium from India to China in order to correct the trade imbalance. When China resisted, the First Opium War (1839-1842) broke out, as suggested by (A). At the end of the war, Great Britain imposed harsh conditions on China, including the acquisition of treaty ports (B). European powers acted at the end of the nineteenth century to express the anti-foreign movement of the Boxers (D). European powers, including Great Britain, did not colonize large portions of China.
Panama Canal obstacle
1904-1914. Early in the project, many workers died from malaria, also called yellow fever. Dr. William Gorgas traced the spread of the disease to mosquitoes and ordered the nearby swamps and ponds drained to prevent mosquitoes from multiplying. Within two years, malaria had disappeared from the area.
major consequence of the treaties that ended the First World War
The treaties following the First World War applied the principle of national self-determination to some areas of eastern Europe but not to European colonies, as suggested in (B). The tsar had already been deposed in 1917 and Germany and Austria were not admitted to the League of Nations, as suggested by (A) and (D), respectively. The fall of the German, Austro-Hungarian, Russian, and Ottoman Empires resulted in the creation of many nations: Poland, Yugoslavia, Finland, the Baltic states, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, and the much-reduced Hungary, Austria, Germany, and Russia. With few exceptions, these nations suffered grave economic and political crises in the interwar years.
aspects of disagreement in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict
Neither side of the conflict has officially listed state control of the economy as a source of disagreement or dispute; Israel has a largely capitalist economy, while the Palestinian political economy is more of a hybrid between a market economy and state-directed development (in the West Bank, the Gazan economy is significantly underdeveloped and partially underground).
contributing factor in ethnic conflict and political unrest in sub-Saharan Africa during the last 50 years
Because the political borders of many African countries do not correspond to those recognized by the continent's numerous tribal groups, many ethnic conflicts have erupted in sub-Saharan Africa, such as the 1994 Hutu massacre of the Tutsi minority in Rwanda.
took place after the government of Cuba nationalized property and assets held by United States citizens and corporations within its borders
The United States imposed a trade embargo on Cuba as part of the plan to combat the global spread of communism during the Cold War
main goal of Pan-Africanism
The Pan-African movement focused on building solidarity among African people worldwide.
major purpose of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
to reduce tariffs and other trade barriers among the United States, Canada, and Mexico
NAFTA was signed in 1992
most important contributing factor to the outbreak of the Iranian Revolution in 1979
Demonstrations against the United States-supported Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi began in 1977 and the revolution took place in 1979. Under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, Iran became an Islamic republic with a government intent on eliminating secularism.
imprisoned for many years for opposing apartheid and was elected president of South Africa in 1994
Nelson Mandela was an antiapartheid activist and was imprisoned between 1964 and 1990 in South Africa. After his release, Mandela became president of the African National Congress and led negotiations to end apartheid and begin the transition to a nonracial democracy. He went on to become the first black president of South Africa, elected in the first universal suffrage election.
presents an argument that the legitimacy of a government is based on the consent of the governed
John Locke's most significant work on political philosophy, The Second Treatise of Government, is a refutation of the divine right of kings and the absolutist theory of government. Locke saw government as existing only for the public good, and he saw the ruler's authority as conditional rather than absolute.
describes separation of powers
a situation in which the three functions of government and their corresponding powers—executive, legislative, and judicial—are separated into three distinct and independent branches. The United States Constitution distributes the powers of the national government among Congress, the president, and the courts.
The Bill of Rights was originally added to the United States Constitution explicitly to ensure protection from abuse of power by
The first ten amendments to the United States Constitution, the Bill of Rights, derive from the colonial struggle against the king of England and Parliament, as well as growing concepts of individual freedom. They constitute a collection of mutually reinforcing guarantees of individual rights and limitations on national government power.
direct democracy
as in the United States, voters elect representatives who in turn make political decisions. In a pure direct democracy, the right to make political decisions is instead exercised directly by citizens, acting under procedures of majority rule.
Marbury v. Madison
Chief Justice John Marshall in the case of Marbury v. Madison claimed judicial review, one of the most important powers of the Supreme Court, for the court.
power of the Supreme Court to invalidate an act of Congress
Federalism
Federalism is characterized by the division of power between a central national government and state or local governments. (B) is incorrect because under federalism, subgovernments have some degree of independent authority and responsibilities that are not merely devolved by the national government. (C) describes a confederal arrangement of sovereign countries, such as the European Union. (D) is not relevant to the definition of federalism.
Membership in which of the following supranational organizations is most likely to affect the sovereignty of member countries
The European Union is most likely to affect the sovereignty of member countries. The European Union promotes political and economic integration of European countries through measures such as a common currency and coordinated trade and security policies.
voter turnout
While average voter turnout has recently ranged from 36 to 55 percent of the voting-age population, the 18-to-24-year-old age bracket had voter turnout of 32 percent or less. It has consistently been the case in recent years that the 18-to-24-year-old age-group has the lowest election turnout of all age-groups in the United States
presidential system of government
presidents serve a fixed term, as opposed to prime ministers, who are subject to votes of confidence and who can control the timing of elections.
The executive serves a fixed term of office
Third-party candidates sometimes force platform shifts in the dominant parties
"No United States president was elected as a third-party candidate in the twentieth century. Therefore, the third-party system has had no effect on American politics."
One of the most important effects of significant third-party candidacies is that they can force one or both of the two dominant parties to shift their political platforms. A third-party candidate who appeals to the hard right, for example, may threaten to pull votes from the Republican candidate. The Republican candidate is likely to respond by adding more conservative planks to the platform in order to retain those votes.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
decision in 1954
Separate but equal" laws
In 1954, the Supreme Court ruled that the practice of school segregation, defended by some as creating separate but equal educational environments, was, in fact, a violation of the United States Constitution. This decision came to serve as the legal basis for a host of challenges to discriminatory practices in American social and political institutions.
political system of modern Japan
Japan is a democracy. Citizens vote freely for government representatives, and there is an independent legislature. Those are characteristics of a democracy.
media influence
Political scientists tend to believe that the mass media has its greatest impact in shaping public opinion by emphasizing certain issues
pure parliamentary system
All pure parliamentary governments share a number of characteristics that may be contrasted with presidential or mixed systems of government. One of the distinguishing characteristics of a pure parliamentary system is the fusion of the executive and legislative branches of government. The fact that the head of government must come from among the current members of the legislature is an example of the fusion of branches,
Continental Divide
the line that identifies the point in the Rocky Mountains at which streams and rivers flow either west or east. The streams and rivers to the west flow into the Pacific Ocean. The streams and rivers to the east flow into the Gulf of Mexico or the Atlantic Ocean. Among the choices given, Colorado is the only state intersected by the Continental Divide.
soil depletion in deforested rain forest environments
The primary cause of soil depletion after deforestation has been cattle ranching and the raising of cash crops that are not suitable for the soil. The crops deplete the soil's fertility after a year or two.
cultural diffusion
occurs when an innovation or invention is passed along to another culture or cultures.
The passage of gunpowder from China to Europe
subsistence crop
crops that are grown primarily to feed the farmer and the farmer's family.
Corn
Texas Revolution
Texas was part of Mexico but revolted and became its own country in 1836. wanted to become a state for safety and monetary reasons. Texas was admitted as a state in 1845. War with Mexico over border disagreement. Seen as a "War of Northern Aggression" because attempt to gain more land.
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo / Mexican Cession
Ended US Mexican War, 1848. US gained CA, AZ, NM, CO, UT, and NV (CANCUN).
Gadsden Purchase
Land purchased in 1854 for 10 million dollars; allowed for a transcontinental railroad.
Louisiana Purchase
1803, US Purchased land from France for 15 million dollars; doubled the size of the US.
Oregon Territory
Established in a compromise with the British in 1846.
Seward's Folly
Alaska was purchased from Russia in 1867 by William Seward for 7.2 million dollars.
Mormon Trail
Mormons, threatened for their religious ideas, traveled to Utah from Missouri and Illinois in 1846-1868. Used the trail to practice their religious freedom, just like Puritans and Pilgrims. Turned UT from a desert into a successful community.
Santa Fe Trail
Route or road from Mexico City and Mississippi River that went through Santa Fe, NM. Important for trade, used as the invasion route for the US Mexican War.
Oregon Trail
Used from 1811 - 1890s from Mississippi River to Oregon, by more than 400,000. Helped populate the west of US.
Mississippi River
Largest river in US
Great Plains
Flat land without hills, mountains, and very few trees; underground aquifers made this area great farmland.
Rocky Mountains
Highest mountains in US; hard to cross - this led to US buying Gadsden purchase.
Pacific Ocean
Largest ocean in the world; goal of Manifest Destiny
Effect of Manifest Destiny on Americans
gained land, opportunity
Effect of Manifest Destiny on Native Americans
Lost most of their land, forced to move to remote reservations.
Effect of Manifest Destiny on Europeans
Europeans from many countries, but mostly Irish, British, and Germans, came looking for land, work, and religious freedom.
Irish Americans
Discriminated against because Catholic and poor.
Asian-Americans
Treated unfairly because of racism, seen as competition for work.
Mexican-Americans
Given citizenship in the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, but heavily discriminated against.
FDIC
Emergency Banking Act/Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
FDR shut down all banks, Congress passed EBA = gave gov't opportunity to inspect health of all banks. FDIC formed by Congress to insure deposits up to $5000.
Reestablished American faith in banks.
FERA
Federal Emergency Relief Administration
Led by Harry Hopkins, sent funds to depleting local relief agencies. Gave $5 million in two hours. Hopkins believed men should be put to work, not given charity. Funded public work programs.
Revitalized many deteriorating relief programs.
CWA
Civil Works Administration
Public work program which gave the unemployed jobs building or repairing roads, parks, airports, etc. Provided a psychological and physical boost to 4 million workers.
CCC
Civilian Conservation Corps
Environmental program which put 2.5 million unmarried men to work maintaining and restoring forests, beaches, and parks. Workers earned $1 a day but received free board and job training. From 1934 - 1937 this program funded similar programs for 8500 women. Taught the men and women of America how to live independently, thus, increasing their self-esteem.
Indian Reorganization Act of 1934
Ended the sale of tribal lands and restored ownership of un-allocated lands to Native American groups.
NIRA
National Industrial Recovery Act of June 1933
The decline in the industrial prices in 1930s caused business failures and unemployment. This was formed in order to boost the declining prices, helping businesses and workers. It also allowed trade associations in many industries to write codes regulating wages, working conditions, production, and prices. It also set minimum wage. This stopped the tailspin of prices for a short time, but soon, when higher wages went into effect, prices rose, too. Thus, consumers stopped buying. The continuous cycle of overproduction and underconsumption put businesses back into a slump. Some businesses felt that the codes were too complicated. Declared unconstitutional later on.
PWA
Public Works Association
This launched projects such as the Grand Coulee Dam on the Columbia River. One of the best parts of the NIRA.
SEC
Federal Securities Act of May 1933/Securities and Exchange Commission
Required full disclosure of information on stocks being sold. Regulated the stock market. Congress also gave the Federal Reserve Board the power to regulate the purchase of stock on the margin. Critical for long-term success for businesses.
HOLC/AAA
Home Owners Loan Corporation/Agriculture Adjustment Administration
In order to help people keep their houses, this refinanced mortgages of middle-income home owners. The AAA tried to raise farm prices, used proceeds from a new tax to pay farmers not to raise specific crops and animals. Lower production would, in turn, increase prices. Farmers killed off certain animals and crops as they were told to by the AAA. Many could not believe that the federal gov't was condoning such an action when many Americans were starving. Declared unconstitutional later on.
TVA
Tennessee Valley Authority May 1933
This helped farmers and created jobs in one of America's least modernized areas. Reactivating a hydroelectric power plant provided cheap electric power, flood control, and recreational opportunities to the entire Tennessee River Valley.
WPA
Works Progress Administration 1935-1943
Provided work for 8 million Americans. Constructed or repaired schools, hospitals, airfields, etc. Decreased unemployment.
FSA
Farm Security Administration
Loaned more than $1 billion to farmers and set up camps for migrant workers.
National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act)
Legalized practices allowed only unevenly in the past, such as closed closed shops in which only union members can work and collective bargain. The act also set up the National Labor Relations Board to enforce its provisions
Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938
Banned child labor and set a minimum wage. A long-awaited triumph for the progressive era social reformers.
Social Security Act
Established a system that provided old-age pensions for workers, survivor's benefits for victims of industrial accidents, unemployment insurance, and aid for dependent mothers and children, the blind, and physically disabled.