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terms 81-100

functions of political parties

• recruiting and nominating candidates
• educating the electorate about campaign issues
• helping candidates win elections
• monitoring actions of officeholders (watchdog)


statement of a political party positions on issues (planks)

third parties

• introduce new ideas or support for a particular issue
• often revolve around a political personality
• may act as spoiler

how interest groups affect public policy

• identifying issues
• making political contributions
• lobbying government officials

ways individuals affect public policy

• participating in politics (voting, campaigning)
• expressing opinions (lobbying, demonstrating, writing letters)
• joining interest groups

roles of mass media

• identifying candidates
• emphasizing selected issues
• writing editorials, creating political cartoons, publishing op-ed pieces
• broadcasting different points of view
• holding officials accountable


active effort to get support for a particular candidate to be elected to office

rising campaign costs

• requires candidates to conduct extensive fund-raising activities
• encourages the development of political action committees (PACs)
• gives issue-oriented special interest groups increased influence
• leads to campaign finance reform

requirements for voting in Virginia

• citizen of the United States
• resident of Virginia and precinct
• 18 years of age by day of general election
• Register 30 days prior to election

factors in predicting likely voters

• age
• income
• education

why citizens fail to vote

• lack of interest (apathy)
• failure to register
• past experiences
• level of government

presidential nomination

• primary elections
• caucuses
• conventions

electoral college

• group of people that directly elect the president and vice-president
• number of state electors is equal to a state's representation in Congress

electoral college process

• popular vote determines which electors represent each state
• electors meet to vote for President and Vice President
• winner-take-all system leads to targeting of populous states for campaigning

responsibilities of state governments

• reserved powers (10the Amendment)
• includes education, elections, public health, safety, and welfare
• authorize local government
• some powers are denied to the states by the Constitution

state executive branch

• executes laws of Virginia
• prepares biennial budget for General Assembly
• appoints cabinet officers and boards
• administers state bureaucracy
• grants pardons & reprieves
• Governor, lieutenant governor, and attorney general elected

state legislative branch

• makes laws for Virginia
• approves biennial (two-year) budget
• exercises power under the 10th Amendment

General Assembly

• Virginia legislature
• consists of a state senate and house of delegates

state judicial branch

• hears cases under the authority provided by state legislation
• district courts, circuit courts, appeals courts, VA Supreme Court

Virginia Supreme Court

• determines constitutionality of laws/acts of the executive/legislative branches Virginia
• 7 justices/no jury
• appellate jurisdiction
• court of final appeal in the state
• limited original jurisdiction

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