A Level Film Studies editing terms

Editing key words
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Terms in this set (...)

Freeze-frame
A non-naturalistic device, giving the image the appearance of a still photograph.
Scene
A single event in a film (e.g. a conversation), which is created by editing together several SHOTS in order
Dissolve
One image fades into another. Creates connection between scenes.
Cross-cut
Cut between two scenes that are happening simultaneously. Implies a relationship between the scenes. This is also known as inter-cutting.
Parallel Action
Two or more simultaneous scenes shown on the same screen. Implies relationship between scenes and/or subjects.
Jump-cut
An abrupt transition between shots, sometimes deliberate, which is disorienting in terms of the continuity of space and time.
Bridging Shot
Used to show passage of time. Familiar uses include falling calendar pages, clock movement, newspaper headlines, etc.
Montage
Juxtaposing seemingly unrelated shots or scenes which, when combined, achieve a new meaning. Can also show passage of time.
Sync
To place audio and video in their proper relationship so that they match.
Wipe
A transition between shots in which a line passes across the screen, eliminating one shot as it goes and replacing it with the next one. (Similar to a curtain moving across a stage)
Fade
A shot that gradually increases or decreases in brightness usually to or from black. Sound can also fade to or from silence
Editing
The way in which shots are joined together
180 degree rule
A fictional line between two characters speaking which the camera cannot cross without disorientating the audience
Continuity editing
Editing techniques (matched cuts, diegetic sound bridges, eye-line matches) which give the viewer the impression that the action unfolds at the same time and in the same space
Matched Cut
Two shots edited in such a way as to create a familiar relationship between them to may make the change seem smooth through:

continuity of direction;
completed action;
a similar centre of attention in the frame;
a one-step change of shot size (e.g. long to medium);
a change of angle (conventionally at least 30 degrees).
Motivated cut
Cut made just at the point where what has occurred makes the viewer immediately want to see something which is not currently visible (causing us, for instance, to accept compression of time). A typical feature is the shot/reverse shot technique. Editing and camera work appear to be determined by the action.
Cutting rate
Frequency of cuts which may be used as deliberate interruptions to shock, surprise or build tension.
Cutting rhythm
A speed of editing which may be progressively shortened to increase tension. May create an exciting, lyrical or staccato effect in the viewer.
Cutaway
A bridging, intercut shot between two shots of the same subject, representing a secondary activity occurring at the same time as the main action. It may be preceded by a definite look or glance out of frame by a participant, or it may show something of which those in the preceding shot are unaware.
Reaction shot
Any shot, usually a cutaway, in which a participant reacts to action which has just occurred.
Screen time
A period of time represented by events within a film (e.g. a day, a week)
Subjective time
The time experienced or felt by a character in a film, as revealed through camera movement and editing (e.g. when a frightened person's flight from danger is prolonged).
Ambiguous time
Within the context of a well-defined time-scheme sequences may occur which are ambiguous in time, frequently communicated through dissolves and superimpositions.
Extended or expanded time/overlapping action
Intercutting a series of shots, or filming the action from different angles and editing them together to stretch time, or using slow motion for dramatic effect.
Flashback
A break in the chronology of a narrative in which events from the past are disclosed to the viewer.
Slow motion
Action which takes place on the screen at a slower rate than the rate at which the action took place before the camera to make a fast action visible, to make a familiar action strange, or to emphasise a dramatic moment. It can have a lyric and romantic quality or it can amplify violence.
Simultaneous time
Events in different places presented as occurring at the same moment, by parallel editing or cross-cutting
Long take
A single shot (or take, or run of the camera) which lasts for a relatively lengthy period of time to give an 'authentic' feel