19 terms

Biology: 1A

Define Chromosome
A thread-like structure that is made up of DNA that is tightly coiled.
Draw a Double-Stranded Chromosome
Label Cell Cycle Diagram
Define Mitosis
A four-stage process that creates two identical cells from one original cell. It's how we replace cells in the body.
Why do human cells go through Mitosis
1. To repair damaged tissue.
2. To grow
Identify 4 Phases of Mitosis in Order
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
What happens at G1 phase
Cell begins to grow.
What happens at S phase
Replicates all of the DNA inside the cell.
What happens at G2 phase
Continues to grow and prepares for cell division.
What happens at M phase (Mitosis)
Two identical daughter cells are formed from one cell.
Which parts of the cell cycle are interphase
G1, S, G2
Draw and Label Prophase
Draw and Label Metaphase
Draw and Label Anaphase
Draw and Label Telophase
Define Cytokinesis
The last step of cell division when the cytoplasm physically divides into two new daughter cells.
Cytokinesis in Animal vs. Plant Cells
In animal cells during cytokinesis, the cell membrane is drawn inward until the cytoplasm is pinched into two nearly equal parts. In plant cells, the cell plate forms halfway between the divided nuclei which gradually develops into cell membranes that divide the two daughter cells. Plant cells do this because the cell membrane isn't flexible enough.
Explain the role of cyclins and CDK in regulating cell division (in Bozeman Cell Cycle vid)
Cyclins are proteins that accumulate throughout the life of a cell. Once there is enough cyclins, it tells the cell to advance to the next stage. A CDK (Cyclin Dependent Kinase), is a chemical that speeds up actions within a cell. They're found in all living organisms. Once the cyclins accumulate to a high amount, they latch and work with the CDK's. CDK's, like the Mitosis Promoting Factor, when they accumulate a lot can actually work on the cell (break up the nucleus, work on the microtubules). Together, the CDK's push the cell into the next phase in the cell cycle.