17 terms

Biology: 1B

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What is a tumor
A tumor is a mass of tissue that usually appears as a lump which can either be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).
Benign Tumors
1. Not cancerous
2. Unable to spread throughout the body
3. Respond well to treatment
4. Are often surrounded by a protective sac which makes them easy to remove
Malignant Tumors
1. Cancerous
2. Can spread through the body by multiplying uncontrollably
3. Formed by highly unstable cells
Define cancer
Cancer is a disease that is caused by cells that divide uncontrollably. Normal human cells only divide when the body needs them.
Stage 0 Cancer
'In situ'. Cancer cells haven't spread or started at all.
Stage 1 Cancer
Localised cancer. Hasn't spread very far but has spread a little to nearby tissues by the primary location.
Stage 2/3 Cancer
Regional spread. Larger spread has gone into nearby tissues or lymph nodes.
Stage 4 Cancer
Distant spread. Also known as metastatic/advanced cancer, Stage 4 cancer has spread to other places in the body.
Metastasis
Metastasis occurs at Stage 4 Cancer. Metastasis is when tumors move from one place to another place in the body. It happens when cancer cells break off the primary tumor and move through the body to form new tumors in various places.
Radiation vs Chemotherapy
Radiation:
1. When cancer is local
2. Kills cancer cells by damaging their DNA.
3. High does of radiation
Chemotherapy
1. When cancer is spread all over
2. Targets ALL cells that divide rapidly.
3. Drugs
Cell cycle relation to chemotherapy and why the side effects occur
Side effects occur during chemotherapy because chemotherapy targets all cells that divide rapidly and isn't specific to cancer cells only. Since hair cells divide rapidly like cancer cells, this is why many people lose their hair during chemotherapy.
Function of Ras Cyclin
Makes sure cell is the right size. At the end of G1
Function of p53
Make sure DNA isn't damaged. Happens between G1 and S.
Function of ATM/Nibrin
Make sure DNA replication was perfect. Between S and G2.
Function of Mad1
Make sure spindles were attached to the centromere. Happens at Mitosis.
What happens if regulatory proteins don't function properly?
Ras Cyclin: Cells might be too small or large and therefore won't divide.

p53: Can create damaged DNA which could lead to a mutation that could cause cancer.

ATM/Nibrin: Cells won't split if they aren't exact copies. Could lead to a mutation that could cause cancer.

Mad1: If the spindle fibers are not attached properly, they could cause health issues.
What is a recent scientific finding about mutations associated with cancer and can directly associate those findings with my learning from the regulating the cell cycle activity that we did in class. I can also discuss how knowledge of these mutations is helping to develop treatments by giving a specific example.
A cure for cancer other than chemotherapy and radiation is "molecularly targeted therapy." Molecularly targeted therapy is designed to only kill the cancer cells in the body. They do this by targeting cancer molecules that are unique to the type of cancer dividing uncontrollably. Scientists have done this to reduce the terrible side effects that come with chemotherapy like hair loss and weakness. They think these types of cancer drugs are more like poison since they kill more than the desired cancer cells, but they kill anything that it's shot at.
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